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"Complicated Complicity. European Collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II"
Edited by: Martina Bitunjac and Julius Schoeps
Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter 2021.

"Complicated Complicity" is about the forms taken, motives and spectrum of actions of European collaboration with the Nazis. State authorities, local military organizations and individual players in different countries and areas including France, Scandinavia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Greece, Italy, Portugal and the countries of the former Yugoslavia are discussed in the context of the history of World War II, the history of occupation and everyday life and as an essential influencing factor in the Holocaust.
New forms of right-wing populism, nationalism and growing intolerance of Jewish fellow citizens and minorities have made such historically sensitive studies considerably more difficult in many countries today. In this time of increasing historical revisionism in Europe, such elucidating discourse is particularly relevant.
We would like to thank all of the authors who have enriched this book with their scholarship and sociocritical analyses.


The photo shows Slovak soldiers humiliating Lipe Baum, a Jewish man, during the deportation of the Jews in Stropkov. Slovakia, May 23, 1942. Today these photos are not only historical testimonies of European anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, which – as this book shows – was greatly facilitated by the close collaboration between Nazi Germany and other European countries. They also serve as a timeless wake-up call and admonition against anti-Semitism, Holocaust relativism, hate and racism – phenomena that no society, then or now, was or is immune to.

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