72. Jahrgang 2020

Inhaltsverzeichnis und Abstracts

Heft 1

 

AUFSÄTZE

Predrag Bukovec: Die Abrahamisierung der Wallfahrt durch Mohammed

Rolf Hosfeld: Welttheater als Tragikomödie. Heinrich Heines Epochenerfahrung

Wolfgang Bock: Walter Benjamin als Leser Søren Kierkegaards. Der geschichtsphilosophische Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels zwischen Erbsünde und Sprung in den Glauben

Klaus-Jürgen Hermanik: The Film When Day Breaks – a Visual Lieu de Mémoire for the Yugoslav Jewry

 

MISZELLEN

Christoph Böhr: Einflüsterungen des Rätselhaften: Metaphysik als Änigma. Wolfram Hogrebe über Ungelöstes und Unlösbares 

Julius H. Schoeps: „Kommen Sie, Fontane!“ Der märkische Schriftsteller und sein ambivalentes Verhalten Juden gegenüber 

 

REZENSIONEN

Gottfried Mehnert: Jüdische Wissenschaft im Dialog mit evangelischer Theologie. Auseinandersetzung mit Adolf von Harnack, Marburger Rabbinerprüfungen, Marburger Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus, Forum Christen und Juden, Bd. 16, Berlin/ Münster: LIT Verlag 2017, 172 S. (Klaus-Peter Friedrich)

Hans Otto Horch (Hg.): Handbuch der deutsch-jüdischen Literatur, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter 2016, VII + 630 S. (Enrico Rosso)

Christof Landmesser (Hrsg.): Bultmann Handbuch, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2017, 546 S. (Lukas Bormann)

Andrew Wright Hurley: Ludwig Leichhardt’s Ghosts. The Strange Career of a Traveling Myth, Rochester, NY: Camden House 2018, 345 S. (Helmut Peitsch)

Norbert Waszek (Hg.): G. W. F. Hegel und Hermann Cohen. Wege zur Versöhnung. Festschrift für Myriam Bienenstock, Freiburg/München: Verlag Karl Alber, 2018, 270 S. (Martin Arndt)

Uta Jungcurt: Alldeutscher Extremismus in der Weimarer Republik. Denken und Handeln einer einflussreichen bürgerlichen Minderheit, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter 2016, 395 S. (Christoph Kopke)

Olga Benario/Luiz Carlos Prestes: Die Unbeugsamen. Briefwechsel aus Gefängnis und KZ (hg. von Robert Cohen), Göttingen: Wallstein 2013, 270 S.; Robert Cohen:Der Vorgang Benario. Die Gestapo-Akte 1936–1942, Berlin: Edition Berolina 2016, 188 S. (Hiltrud Arens)

Harald Jähner: Wolfszeit. Deutschland und die Deutschen 1945–1955, Berlin: Rowohlt Verlag 2019, 475 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

Stefan Mückl (Hg.): Kirche und Staat in Mittel- und Osteuropa. Die Entwicklung des Staat-Kirche-Verhältnisses in den Transformationsländern Mittel- und Osteuropas seit 1990, Staatskirchenrechtliche Abhandlungen (SKA), Band 56/I, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 2017, 264 S. (Martina Bitunjac)

 

ABSTRACTS

Predrag Bukovec: Die Abrahamisierung der Wallfahrt durch Mohammed

The pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the central liturgical rituals in Islam. The local cult of Mecca reaches back to pre-Islamic times and was adapted by Muhammad. The complex process of liturgical reform – by main tain ing more or less the ritual on the one hand, but changing its interpretation by the way of Abrahamitic universalism on the other hand –, is attested in the Qur’ān itself as well as in early Islamic historiography. The present contribution ana lyzes the Qur’ānic quotations in their chronological order (with the special methodological focus on Com pa rat ive Li tur giology) and systemizes Muhammad’s program of cultic transformation which can be understood as the fusion of horizons between Arabic heritage and its incorporation into the Islamic version of the Biblical salvation history.

 

Rolf Hosfeld: Welttheater als Tragikomödie. Heinrich Heines Epochenerfahrung

There is something miraculous about the reception of Heinrich Heine in Germany: One might call him the best-known unknown writer. Critics from Heinrich von Treitschke to Theodor W. Adorno accused him of ruining German poetic language by accommodating his style to journalism. Yet others, like Friedrich Nietzsche and Hannah Arendt saw him as an early “post-modernist”, insofar as he was insulting deep-rooted traditions of German idealism. His innovative poetry was carnivalesque, leading to a multi-perspective tragicomic worldview without inner reason or center, always on the edge of an open and unfijinished present. Deeply influenced by Hegel, he never became an orthodox Hegelian, partly because of his heterodox Spinozism. Influencing the “revolutionary break” in 19th century worldviews, he developed an elucidated view on the tragicomic dialectics of European enlightenment, the modern subject and the age of revolutions.

 

Wolfgang Bock: Walter Benjamin als Leser Søren Kierkegaards. Der geschichtsphilosophische Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels zwischen Erbsünde und Sprung in den Glauben

Walter Benjamin’s reading of Søren Kierkegaard used to be underestimated. It might be known that Kierkegaard had a strong influence on the young Benjamin, but his late reception used to be in the shadow of Adorno’s Hegelian interpretation. That is also represented in the organization of Benjamin’s Gesammelte Schriften. In this essay it is shown that the Dane not only played a leading role in Benjamin’s conception of his book on the Barock Mourning Play; he also can be seen as a missing link between this work and the later Arcade-Project. Benjamin sketched the conception for the later view on Parisian passages already in his theological discussion of Kierkegaard’s reception of an Augustinian messianic time concept. But he intends to bring it home from a Christian point of view to a different Jewish heterodox version, which for him and his friend Gershom Scholem underlies Kierkegaard’s writings.

 

Klaus-Jürgen Hermanik: The Film When Day Breaks – a Visual Lieu de Mémoire for the Yugoslav Jewry

Due to the power of empathic identification the post-Yugoslav-film Kad svane dan (When Day Breaks, 2012, directed by Goran Paskaljević) revives the memory of Yugoslav Jewry. The article is therefore methodologically based on theories of cultural studies that assume that ‘empathic identifijication’ with media characters is the most direct access of the audience to mediated texts. The movie circles around the quest for the protagonist’s Jewish heritage and as a consequence for his own Jewishness. When Day Breaks does exemplify mediated memory of the Holocaust in Belgrade in particular. Moreover, it can be seen as a milestone for altered memory practices after the breakup of socialist Yugoslavia, since in 2012 it was the oficial Serbian submission to the 85th Academy Awards for the category “Best Foreign Language Film”. Altogether, these facts show the importance of this film becoming a visual lieu de mémoire for the Yugoslav Jewry.

 

Heft 2

 

AUFSÄTZE

Joseph A. Kruse: „Wahrlich, wenn Christus noch kein Gott wäre, so würde ich ihn dazu wählen“. Über Heinrich Heines Verhältnis zum Christentum

Dieter J. Hecht: Austrian Jewish Soldiers Conquering the Balkan before World War I

Hans Kruschwitz: Den göttlichen Abgrund offenhalten. Max Brods Transformation des Esther-Stoffs zu einem Drama des Lustprinzips

Liliane Weissberg: Hannah Arendt besucht Karl Jaspers

 

MISZELLEN

Thomas Gertzen: Herr Lublins Laden im Bött(i)chergässchen. Literarische Anspielungen auf Paul Anton de Lagarde bei Schmu’el Josef Agnon

Klaus-Peter Friedrich: Neue Darstellungen zu den Novemberpogromen in der Provinz

 

REZENSIONEN

Alexander Weiß: Soziale Elite und Christentum. Studien zu ordo-Angehörigen unter den frühen Christen, Millennium-Studien zu Kultur und Geschichte des ersten Jahrtausends n. Chr., Band 52, Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter Verlag 2017, 245 S. (Friedrich W. Horn)

Ursula Verhoeven: Das frühsaitische Totenbuch des Monthpriesters Chamhor C., unter Mitarbeit von Sandra Sandri (Beiträge zum Alten Ägypten 7), Basel: Orientverlag 2017, 68 S., 63 Tafeln. (Stefan Bojowald)

Lauren Drover: Überlegungen zum Missionsbegriff anhand von Beispielem aus Christentum, Islam und Buddhismus, Bd. 14, Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag 2016, 242 S. (Martin Arndt)

Valentina Motta: Antigone illustrata, Rome: Albatros 2019, 186pp. (Alessandro Vagnini)

Joanna Nowotny: „Kierkegaard ist ein Jude“. Jüdische Kierkegaard Lektüren in Literatur und Philosophie, Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2018, 429 S. (Wolfgang Bock)

Christoph Jahr: Paul Nathan. Publizist, Politiker und Philanthrop 1857–1927, Göttingen: Wallstein 2018, 304 S. (Thomas Gertzen)

Micha Brumlik: Preußisch, konservativ, jüdisch. Hans-Joachim Schoeps’ Leben und Werk, Wien/Köln/Weimar: Böhlau Verlag 2019, 294 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

Jens Hacke: Existenzkrise des Liberalismus. Zur politischen Theorie des Liberalismus in der Zwischenkriegszeit, Berlin: Suhrkamp 2018, 455 S. (Ronny Noak)

Mirjam Rajner: Fragile Images. Jews and Art in Yugoslavia, 1918–1945, Leiden/Boston: Brill 2019, 446 S. (Martina Bitunjac)

Rena Molho: Der Holocaust der griechischen Juden. Studien zur Geschichte und Erinnerung. Aus dem Griechischen übersetzt von Lulu Bail, mit einem Prolog von Nikos Zaikos, Bonn: Verlag J. H. Dietz 2016, 263 S. (Martin Arndt)

Ulrich Greiner: Heimatlos. Bekenntnisse eines Konservativen, Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Verlag 2017, 160 S.; Franziska Meifort: Ralf Dahrendorf. Eine Biographie, München: C. H. Beck Verlag 2017, 477. (Joachim H. Knoll)

Thomas Macho: Das Leben nehmen – Suizid in der Moderne, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2017,  531 S. (Martin Arndt)

Andreas Rödder: Konservativ 21.0. Eine Agenda für Deutschland, München: C. H. Beck 2019, 144 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

 

ABSTRACTS

Joseph A. Kruse: „Wahrlich, wenn Christus noch kein Gott wäre, so würde ich ihn dazu wählen“. Über Heinrich Heines Verhältnis zum Christentum

Heinrich Heine was definitely a ‚learned‘ poet and strategist regarding the implementation of his convictions in favor of human rights. In this respect he was also a religiously interested and theologically well-read author who knew how to express himself precisely. As a basis for that served his Jewish origin and his school in Düsseldorf, particularly his main teacher, a Catholic priest. Furthermore his studies in Bonn, Berlin and Göttingen enabled him to widen his knowledge of law, philosophy and history, let alone his becoming a Protestant and last but not least his Catholic wedding in Paris. However, above all he was an enthusiast of the bible, a religious critic, yet still someone who knew to pray with great intensity. His „mattress grave“ produced poetical pieces of evidence of complete sovereignty and freedom. Because of such religious questions, especially in view of his attitude towards Christianity, an open-minded readership will be aware, up to this day, about the nature of his critical declarations of belief in human rights and human conclusions, and this from the biblical, Jewish and Christian point of view and tradition. Emancipation for him is an integral process, which culminated in the fijigure of Jesus. Consequently Heine becomes a self-confident interpreter of the bible with prophetically independent interpretations, referring to important statements of the doctrine of salvation and divine existence.

 

Dieter J. Hecht: Austrian Jewish Soldiers Conquering the Balkan before World War I

In 1878, Jewish soldiers participated in the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina along with other soldiers of the Habsburg Monarchy; even a rabbi took part in this enterprise as a Jewish military chaplain. Since then, Jewish soldiers undertook their maneuvers throughout the Habsburg territories, including the Balkans, and were stationed in military barracks. Besides their military service, the soldiers travelled through towns and villages and encountered the local population, among them the diffferent Jewish communities. The Sephardic communities especially intrigued the Jewish soldiers from Central and Eastern Europe because of their ‘exotic’ nature. In some cases, the Jewish soldiers enriched small Jewish communities with their presence and the active participation in community life. Many soldiers documented their experience; they wrote diaries and letters, took photographs and sent postcards to their families throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. By those activities the soldiers recorded not only their own lives; as a matter of fact, they acted as cultural agents who provided their families and friends with knowledge and expertise about foreign and ‘exotic’ places. Their documents became especially important memory objects after the end of World War I and the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. However, most of those private Jewish memories were destroyed during the Shoah. This paper presents the results of continuous attempts to trace several of these scattered documents that were preserved in public archives as well as in private estates. It aims to assess and to reconstruct the lives and adventures of Jewish soldiers in the Habsburg Monarchy with a special focus on the soldiers’ memories of the Balkans.

 

Hans Kruschwitz: Den göttlichen Abgrund offenhalten. Max Brods Transformation des Esther-Stoffs zu einem Drama des Lustprinzips

This study presents a new reading of Max Brod’s adaptation of the Esther narrative. Unlike previous interpretations that recognized a Jewish self-hater in his Haman-fijigure, this paper suggests in recourse to Jacques Lacan’s and Slavoj Žižek’s reflections on the nature of the religious to understand him as the defender of the Jewish religion. It is through his efffort to keep the mystery of the other open that Brod transforms the biblical narrative into a drama of the pleasure principle – which according to Lacan serves to lead the subject from signifijier to signifijier in order to keep it in distance from the ‘unifying thing’ it is looking for.

 

Liliane Weissberg: Hannah Arendt besucht Karl Jaspers

This essay traces the friendship of Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers, and their discussion of what it means to be a German and a Jew. It highlights three seminal moments in their relationship: National Socialism’s rise to power (1933), their renewed contact after WWII (1945–48), and the publication of Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963).

 

 

Heft 3

 

AUFSÄTZE

Hoda Mahmoudi: Peace is Everything: An Examination of the Bahá’í Faith’s Concept of Peace This paper describes the central role of peace in the Bahá’í Faith

Sasha Dehghani: Der Bahá’í-Glaube als Weltreligion 100 Jahre deutsche Religionsgeschichte: Ein Entwurf 

Emanuel V. Towfigh: Die Entwicklung des Verhältnisses des Bahá’í-Rechts zum säkularen deutschen Recht

Armin Eschraghi: Das „Feindbild Bahai“ im Wandel der politischen Verhältnisse im Iran

 

MISZELLEN

Adam J. T. Robarts: Akbar’s Dream Some observations on the architectural and symbolic order of ‘temple’ in the Bahá’í Faith

 

REZENSIONEN

Roland Faber: The Ocean of God. On the Transreligious Future of Religions, London: Anthem Press 2019, 250 pp. (Moojan Momen) 

Guido Ettlich: Konsul Albert Schwarz, Bankier, Bürger & Baha’i in Stuttgart und Bad Mergentheim, Berlin: Der Erzählverlag, 2018, 425 S. (Wahied Wahdat-Hagh)

Fereydun Vahman: 175 Years of Persecution. A History of the Babis & Baha’is of Iran, London: Oneworld Publications 2019, 352 S. (Johannes Rosenbaum)

Moojan Momen: The Baha’i Communities of Iran, 1851–1921. Volume 1: The North of Iran, Oxford: George Ronald 2015, 604 S. (Wahied Wahdat-Hagh)

 

ABSTRACTS

Hoda Mahmoudi: Peace is Everything: An Examination of the Bahá’í Faith’s Concept of Peace This paper describes the central role of peace in the Bahá’í Faith

For Bahá’ís, peace begins at the level of the individual and migrates outward to the community, nation, and the world. The article explains how the Bahá’í Faith outlines a covenant – an agreement between Bahá’ís and between Bahá’ís and the world – made manifest in an Administrative Order in which the ascertainment of peaceful principles and the establishment of peaceful practices are developed. The paper explains how concepts like the oneness of humanity, the symbiosis between science and religion, and the unity of religion and God combine with ideals like justice, equality, and consultation to form a Bahá’í approach to the creation and maintenance of peace. Integration and disintegration – broad-structured, dynamic efffects that shift societies and the world – will help to usher in two main aspects of a present and future Bahá’í order: the Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace. The Lesser Peace is defijined by the effforts of nations and international actors to form a broad-based, global peace. The Most Great Peace describes the arrival and ascendance of the Bahá’í Administrative Order, which will result in an unprecedented level of global peace and security.

 

Sasha Dehghani: Der Bahá’í-Glaube als Weltreligion 100 Jahre deutsche Religionsgeschichte: Ein Entwurf 

For a century the Bahá’í Faith has been classifijied, within the German academy, as a world religion. This article highlights the major historical milestones in this process of recognition. The process was initiated on the eve of the First World War by the two Jewish Germanophone orientalists Goldziher and Vambery. In the inter-war period, the categorization of this faith as a world religion – rather than a sect of Islam, as it had once been viewed – was further propelled by academics outside the fijield of theology and religious studies, such as the natural scientist Auguste Forel. It was only after the catastrophic experience of World War II, a period when the German Bahá’í community evinced a spirit of resilience in the face of Nazi oppression, that scholars in the fijield of Christian theology and religious studies, such as Heiler, Mensching and Benz, who represented the school of Religionswissenschaft des Verstehens, began to adopt the classifijication of the Bahá’ís as new world religion.

 

Emanuel V. Towfigh: Die Entwicklung des Verhältnisses des Bahá’í-Rechts zum säkularen deutschen Recht

Eine Untersuchung zum Umgang mit Rechtskollisionen Bahá’í law diffferentiates between a secular and a sacred legal sphere, intertwining both by positing a religious duty for its adherents to abide by secular (state) law. In Germany, it encounters a secular legal framework that aims at something similar – creating an equilibrium between state law and religious law by establishing the principle of the division of State and Religion, while at the same time facilitating religious freedom; it provides a secular justifijication for the recognition of religious law. With this, both orders provide mechanisms ensuring that state law and religious law are able to enforce their own claim of validity, while at the same time avoiding conflicts between the respective legal orders. The article argues that this unique interaction between Bahá’í law and the German constitutional law framework impacted both legal orders. For German law, on the one hand, it proved to be crucial for the development and opening of this legal fijield – whose original purpose was the regulation of the relationship between the state and the (two) Christian churches – for other religious traditions. The interaction with state law has impacted the Bahá’í Community of Germany, on the other hand, by catalyzing a number of developments that in other comparative law contexts have been dubbed “constitutionalization” efffects.

 

Armin Eschraghi: Das „Feindbild Bahai“ im Wandel der politischen Verhältnisse im Iran

The Bahai Faith originated in 19th century Iran. Since the early days of its inception and up until today, in Iran the followers of the faith have been subject to persecution, carried out under diffferent pretexts. A study of polemical anti-Bahai writings demonstrates that the accusations against Bahais evolved and in fact changed over time. The portrayal of the Bahais as “enemies” was reshaped and adapted time and again to current needs and ideological agendas. Anti-Bahaism, it is argued in this paper, is part of the contemporary political discourse and mirrors the diffferent stages of political developments in Iran over the past one and a half centuries. Anti-Bahai polemics, while in general wholly unreliable as a source for Bahai doctrine and history, serve as a vivid example for mechanisms employed in the “othering” of minority groups and the preparation for their physical persecution.

 

Heft 4

 

AUFSÄTZE

George Y. Kohler: Die Vernünftigkeit des jüdischen Dogmas. Samuel Holdheims Kritik an Mendelssohns Religionsphilosophie

Julius H. Schoeps: Vergiftetes Kulturerbe. Die Debatte um die Entfernung der Judensau-Skulpturen aus den Kirchen etwas weitergedacht

Bernhard Holl: Antijüdische Polemik unter falscher Flagge. Das vorgebliche Pamphlet eines anonymen Judaisierers 1480 in Sevilla

 

REZENSIONEN

Christian Clement (Hg.), Rudolf Steiner – Friedrich Nietzsche. Ein Kämpfer gegen seine Zeit, (Goethes Weltanschauung, Haeckel und seine Gegner = SKA 3), Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: frommann-holzboog Verlag, 2019, 487 S. (Bertram Herr)

Philipp Lenhard, Friedrich Pollock. Die graue Eminenz der Frankfurter Schule, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag / Jüdischer Verlag, Berlin 2019, 383 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

 Elisabeth Gallas: A Mortuary of Books. The Rescue of Jewish Culture after the Holocaust, (=The Goldstein-Goren Series in American Jewish History), New York: New York Uni­versity Press 2019, 385 S. (Klaus-Peter Friedrich)

Luca Corchia/Stefan Müller-Doohm/William Outhwaite (Hg.): Habermas global. Wirkungsgeschichte eines Werks, Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019, 894 S. (Martin Arndt)

 

ABSTRACTS

George Y. Kohler: Die Vernünftigkeit des jüdischen Dogmas. Samuel Holdheims Kritik an Mendelssohns Religionsphilosophie

Moses Mendelssohn’s (1729–1786) religious philosophy, pathbreaking as it was, became the object of heavy critique by many German Jewish thinkers of the nineteenth century. One of the most outspoken rejections of Mendelssohn’s ideas came from Samuel Holdheim (1806–1860), probably also the most radical Reform rabbi of the century. Holdheim objected against Mendelssohn’s separation of religious law and philosophy – suggesting rather a re-integration of the great humanistic ideas of the Hebrew Bible into Jewish thought, proposing thus an inherent connection between the monotheistic principle and the more rational commandments of the Torah. On the other hand, Holdheim denied Mendelssohn’s belief in the eternal validity of the ceremonial commandments of the Bible and demanded to view those as largely obsolete, outdated by history itself. However, Holdheim explained Mendelssohn’s positions as born out of their own time, and essentially as the attempt to ward offf Christian attempts at luring the Jews into baptism.

 

Julius H. Schoeps: Vergiftetes Kulturerbe. Die Debatte um die Entfernung der Judensau-Skulpturen aus den Kirchen etwas weitergedacht

Medieval sculptures of so-called „Jew-Sows“ inside and outside famous Church buildings, especially in the German-speaking countries, have a disastrous tradition and a poisoning impact until today. There are sharp controversies now on how to deal with these “unappetizing” sculptures, visible for example at the City church of Wittenberg, the town where protestant reformer Martin Luther had lived and worked. But the problem goes deeper. Obscene and perfijidious representations of Jews, as they were usual in Christian-dominated Europe over centuries, have also penetrated the thought world and language use until today. Swearwords like “Jew-Sow” and “Jew-Pig” are used in order to attack and discredit Jews, non-Jews and disliked coevals. New strategies of combatting this “poisoning traditions” are needed. This article also refers to the roots of early Christian Jew-hatred and recommends an impartial critical discussion on relevant anti-Jewish passages in the Christian Bible.

 

Bernhard Holl: Antijüdische Polemik unter falscher Flagge. Das vorgebliche Pamphlet eines anonymen Judaisierers 1480 in Sevilla

For the longest time historians have treated the infamous Libelo de Sevilla (1480) as an authentic document of the heresy of “Judaizing” allegedly wide spread among the so-called marrano or converso population. However, a closer look however reveals that the pamphlet is much more likely to be the fabrication of Old Christian agitators aiming to discredit both converts from Judaism and their allies.