69. Jahrgang 2017

Inhaltsverzeichnis und Abstracts

 

Heft 1

 

AUFSÄTZE

Oliver Krüger:  „Religion“ definieren. Eine wissenssoziologische Analyse religionsbezogener Enzyklopadistik

Aya Elyada: Zwischen Austausch und Polemik: Christliche Übersetzungen jiddischer Literatur im Deutschland der Frühneuzeit

Franziska Krah: Franz Oppenheimers Analyse des Antisemitismus in der Weimarer Republik

Ivo Goldstein: Croatia and Yugoslavia in the Cleft between Totalitarianisms

 

MISZELLE

Reinhard Mehring:  Leviathan oder Behemoth? Horst Bredekamps Arbeit an Carl Schmitts Mythos des 20. Jahrhunderts

 

REZENSIONEN

Bernd-Christian Otto/Susanne Rau/Jörg Rüpke (Hg.): History and Religion. Narrating a Religious Past (= Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten, Bd. 68), Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter 2015, 464 S. (Dirk Schuster)

Ernst Ziegler (Hg.): Arthur Schopenhauer, Spicilegia Philosophische Notizen. C. H. Beck Verlag: München 2015, 800 S. (Martin Arndt)

Linck, Stephan: Neue Anfänge? Der Umgang der Evangelischen Kirche mit der NS-Vergangenheit und ihr Verhältnis zum Judentum. Die Landeskirchen in Nordelbien, Band II: 1965-1985. Kiel (Lutherische Verlagsgesellschaft) 2016. 479 (1) S. (Christoph Kopke)

 

ABSTRACTS

Oliver Krüger:  „Religion“ definieren. Eine wissenssoziologische Analyse religionsbezogener Enzyklopadistik

As the age of printed encyclopedias comes to an end, the article explores the practice of defining “religion” in common and specialized encyclopedias of German language. The analysis shows that the basic elements of most definitions – etymology, typologies of religion, the statistical/geographical distribution of traditions – imply highly normative aspects. Considering encyclopedias as mirrors of the (social) world we finally argue to overcome the static definitions of the past in favor of more dynamic, relational perspectives.

 

Aya Elyada: Zwischen Austausch und Polemik: Christliche Übersetzungen jiddischer Literatur im Deutschland der Frühneuzeit

This paper explores German translations from Yiddish, prepared by Christian authors for Christian readership in the early modern era. By examining the motivations for translation, the methods used by the Christian translators, and how these methods served the latter’s purposes, the paper aims to promote our understanding of the cultural exchange between Jews and Christians in the early modern period. It also aims to shed light on a unique phenomenon in the history of translation in the German-speaking world.

 

Franziska Krah: Franz Oppenheimers Analyse des Antisemitismus in der Weimarer Republik

As a science focusing on the study of social behavior and society, Sociology naturally analyzes, amongst others, the origin of the hatred of Jews and its manifestations. Franz Oppenheimer, who had been holding the first chair in Sociology in Germany since 1919, also engaged in the study of modern antisemitism. In his analysis, Oppenheimer considered antisemitism a result of group dynamics, the exceptional social status of the Jews in European history, and of capitalism. Consequently, his answer to the physical and psychological threats against Jews was a structural reform of society – and Zionism. This article summarizes and historicizes his approach, taking into account his background and personal experiences with antisemitism.

 

Ivo Goldstein: Croatia and Yugoslavia in the Cleft between Totalitarianisms

After 1990, a fervent discussion about the character of the Ustasha regime in the Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945) and of the Yugoslav communist regime (1945-1991) took place in Croatia and parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The symbols of these regimes and the crimes committed in their names are the Ustasha camp at Jasenovac and the mass execution of Croatian Ustasha, German (SS and Wehrmacht), Slovenian (Slovensko domobranstvo) and Serbian (Chetniks and other collaborators) soldiers in May 1945 after they surrendered at Bleiburg and elsewhere in the country. Within revisionist circles there is a strong tendency to apply equidistance to these events by concluding that both regimes were totalitarian and that all totalitarianisms are the same. In the same way, when revisionists analyze those crimes, they will state that a crime is a crime, regardless of the ideology
that inspired it and the flag under which it was committed. The author concludes that Jasenovac was a crime of genocide but that Bleiburg was a war crime and a crime against humanity. Therefore two crimes are not and cannot be the same and, consequently, the two totalitarian regimes were not and cannot be the same.

 

 

Heft 2

Anlässlich des 250. Geburtstages Wilhelm von Humboldts

Julius H. Schoeps zum 75. Geburtstag

 

EINLEITUNG

Joachim H. Knoll: Humboldt – wieder gelesen

 

AUFSÄTZE

Heinz-Elmar Tenorth:  Wilhelm von Humboldt, ein Philosoph als Bildungspolitiker. Zuschreibungen, historische Praxis, fortdauernde Herausforderung

Ulrich Herrmann: Wilhelm von Humboldt. Die „Schulpläne“ – neu gelesen. Aus Anlass des 250. Geburtstages von Wilhelm von Humboldt am 22. Juni 2017

Hannah Lotte-Lund: „Das Eigene“ und das Andere – der frühe Wilhelm von Humboldt und die „jüdischen Salons“ der 1790er Jahre

Werner Treß: Liberale Politik im christlichen Staat? Wilhelm von Humboldt und das Bürgerrecht für die Juden

 

MISZELLE

Joachim H. Knoll: Weshalb eine neue Humboldt Biographie?

 

REZENSIONEN

Andrea Wulf: Alexander von Humboldt und die Erfindung der Natur. Aus dem Englischen übertragen von Hainer Kober, München: C. Bertelsmann Verlag 2015, 556 S. (Martin Arndt)

Stephan Leibfried/Christoph Markschies/Ernst Osterkamp/ Günter Stock: Berlins Wilde Energien. Porträts aus der Geschichte der Leibnizschen Wissenschaftsakademie, Berlin/ Boston: de Gruyter Akademie Forschung 2015, 517 S. (Martin Arndt)

Günter Erbe: Der moderne Dandy, Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2017, 351 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

ABSTRACTS

 

Heinz-Elmar Tenorth: Wilhelm von Humboldt, ein Philosoph als Bildungspolitiker. Zuschreibungen, historische Praxis, fortdauernde Herausforderung

“Humboldt’s educational reform”, the “Humboldtian Gymnasium” and “the Humboldtian university” belong to the constant topoi of the German debate on the reform of “Bildung”, used as well to corroborate own arguments as to criticize unwanted others. The article discusses the history of this tradition and the validity of the attributions made to Humboldt. In the result, Humboldt’s achievements in educational policy and the influence of his “Grenzen”-essay from 1792 and his texts about educational reform of 1809/10 are analyzed. Primarily in the context of a dominant state-centered educational policy as in Germany, the continuing liberal provocation is caused by the central idea of Humboldt’s educational policy, which is based in a symbiosis from autonomy with “Verstaatlichung” and from “Zweckfreiheit” with purpose oriented practices.

 

Ulrich Herrmann: Wilhelm von Humboldt. Die „Schulpläne“ – neu gelesen. Aus Anlass des 250. Geburtstages von Wilhelm von Humboldt am 22. Juni 2017

Wilhelm von Humboldt is considered the father of the modern (humanistic) gymnasium. His texts from his time as head of the section for Cultural, Educational and Medicinal Affairs in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior (1809/10) prove the contrary: Following elementary school he endorsed a flexible comprehensive school („Einheitsschule“) for all students, intended to provide a general education, whereas specific and especially vocational education was supposed to be taught in special educational institutions. Thus, Humboldt rejected the concept of middle/secondary modern school („Real-/Bürgerschulen“). In fact, educational history already took a new direction since the era of the Prussian reforms. It led to the establishment of a tripartite school system, in which the social class formation has mirrored and reproduced itself since the beginning of the 19th century until today. It was only after the Second World War that comprehensive schools were introduced, across the GDR in general, and in West Germany in most of the federal states as „Gesamtschulen“ (generally) alongside the gymnasium. Humboldt’s reasoning in favor of a comprehensive school remains valid.

 

Hannah Lotte-Lund: „Das Eigene“ und das Andere – der frühe Wilhelm von Humboldt und die „jüdischen Salons“ der 1790er Jahre

The so-called “Berlin Jewish Salons” around 1800 were not only witnesses to the contemporary discourses on emancipations, but were forums and meeting places for their very authors. Some influential philosophers and politicians who fought for the “civic improvement” of the Jews were frequent visitors to the Jewish open houses in Berlin. Similary, many writers who participated in the Querelle des Femmes wrote their texts on gender characteristics during the years of close friendship with the edcuated (Jewish) hostesses. Wilhelm von Humboldt is one of the rare intellectuals who theorized on both questions. The article follows Humboldts concept of polarity expressed his essays on gender and sexual characteristics of 1794/95. Also his intensive reflections on Jews and Judaism, as expressed in his letters to close friends of these years, build on notions of (if fascinating) “Otherness”. The question remains, if and to what extend his ideas of essential difference allow for legal and social equality.

 

Werner Treß: Liberale Politik im christlichen Staat? Wilhelm von Humboldt und das Bürgerrecht für die Juden

This study seeks to trace back Wilhelm von Humboldt’s call for an integrative and full legal equality of the Jews in the context of his ideas pertaining to a liberal state and society. Furthermore it tries to show why these ideas he advanced as a politician were doomed to fail in a reform-oriented, yet still absolutist, estatist and confessional state.

 

Heft 3

 

AUFSÄTZE

Fabian Freiseis: Moses Mendelssohns Bestimmung des „Selbst“ und die Beziehung zum Anderen

Michael Puls:  Eine mehrfache Dessauer Reminiszenz. Johann Andreas Lebrecht Richter und sein Bildnisrelief von Benjamin Schubert aus dem Jahre 1838

Myriam Bienenstock: Die Sprache des Hohelieds: „mehr als Gleichnis“? Zu Rosenzweigs Stern der Erlösung

 

MISZELLEN

Klaus Lichtblau: Puritanismus und Kapitalismus.  Die Protestantische Ethik in der Max-Weber-Gesamtausgab

Dominik Herzner: Kirchenmänner als Schulgründer.  Die Entstehung Deutscher Auslandsschulen in Spanien und die Rolle der evangelischen Pastoren

 

REZENSIONEN

Jan Assmann: Totale Religion. Ursprünge und Formen puritanischer Verschärfung, Wien: Picus Verlag 2016, 184 S. (Reinhard Mehring)

Giovanna Motta: Nell’Europa dell’età moderna. Memoria collettiva e ricerca storica, Passigli Editori: Florenz 2013, 363 S. (Sarah Scheibenberger)

Daniel Krochmalnik (Hg.): Moses Mendelssohn, Schriften zum Judentum III, 3. Pentateuchkommentare in deutscher Übersetzung; übersetzt von Rainer Wenzel, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: frommann-holzboog Verlag Eckhart Holzboog 2009, IX + 437 S.; III.4. Hg. von Daniel Krochmalnik. Einleitungen, Anmerkungen und Register zu den Pentateuchkommentaren in deutscher Übersetzung, bearbeitet von Rainer Wenzel. Mit einem Beitrag von Werner Weinberg; , Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: frommann-holzboog Verlag Eckhart Holzboog 2016, CXII + 576 S. (Gesammelte Schriften Jubiläumsausgabe, Bde. 9, 3-4). (Görge K. Hasselhoff)

John Dieter Brinks: Harry Graf Kessler, München: Deutscher Kunstverlag 2015, 95 S.; Heinz Reif: Metropolenkultur und Elitenbildung. Harry Graf Kesslers Berliner Welten 1892-1905, in: ders.: Adel, Aristokratie, Elite, München: De Gruyter 2016, S. 179-229. (Joachim H. Knoll)

Jean-Louis Georget (Hg.): Hélène Ivanoff und Richard Kuba, Kulturkreise. Leo Frobenius und seine Zeit, Berlin: Reimer Verlag, 2016, 390 S. (Martin Arndt)

Volker Koop: Alfred Rosenberg. Der Wegbereiter des Holocaust. Eine Biographie, Köln: Böhlau-Verlag 2016, 346 S. (Armin Pfahl-Traughber)

Stefan Vogt: Subalterne Positionierungen. Der deutsche Zionismus im Feld des Nationalismus in Deutschland 1890-1933, Göttingen: Wallstein 2016, 496 S. (Thomas Vordermayer)

Christoph Böhr (Hg.): Richard Schaeffler. Unbedingte Wahrheit und endliche Vernunft. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen menschlicher Erkenntnis, Das Bild vom Menschen und die Ordnung der Gesellschaft, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2017, 239 S. (Martin Arndt)

 

ABSTRACTS

Fabian Freiseis: Moses Mendelssohns Bestimmung des „Selbst“ und die Beziehung zum Anderen

The article first wants to explain Moses Mendelssohn’s understanding of the human „self“ and soul. The human soul, the substance of the human „self“, is – according to Mendelssohn’s Phädon – immortal. It is very interesting that Mendelssohn’s metaphysical thinking is much more related to his political philosophy and ethics than commonly seen. His theory of „acceptance“, which had a great impact on German Idealism, can only be comprehended if his metaphysical thinking is taken into account. Only then can his dialectical thinking and theory about the structure of a state and the relation between church (or religion) and state be understood. This theoretical basis for a liberal and tolerant state constitution is very inspiring, even today. Mendelssohn may be an important, but very underestimated thinker, who can shed some new light on the current discussion about nationalism, the relation between religion and a (secular) state, Enlightenment and so on. This article wants to promote a critical approach towards Mendelssohn’s metaphysical thinking and his political philosophy, which can only be comprehended with recourse to his metaphysical thoughts.

 

Michael Puls:  Eine mehrfache Dessauer Reminiszenz. Johann Andreas Lebrecht Richter und sein Bildnisrelief von Benjamin Schubert aus dem Jahre 1838

The accession of a portrait relief 1 (fig. 1) by the Berend Lehmann Museum of the Moses Mendelssohn Akademie in Halberstadt draws the attention to a historical personality from the latter sage’s hometown of Dessau, who not only deserves attention on the occasion of his 245th birthday: Johann Andreas Lebrecht Richter, who, as pedagogue and intellectual, has better than most of his generation represented the tradition of Christian-Jewish communication in the context of the Enlightenment in the „exemplary country“ of Anhalt.

 

Myriam Bienenstock: Die Sprache des Hohelieds: „mehr als Gleichnis“? Zu Rosenzweigs Stern der Erlösung

It is by means of a reflection on language that the German-Jewish author Franz Rosenzweig elaborates his reading of the “Song of Songs” in The Star of Redemption (1921), his masterpiece. In the central section of this work, he argues that “language is more than simply a comparison” (Vergleich); that it is “truly allegorical – and therefore more than an allegory“ (wahrhaft Gleichnis – und also mehr als Gleichnis). This article endeavors to clarify the meaning of such a paradoxical thesis. It shows that Rosenzweig (a) wanted to distance himself from the pseudo-scientific practices of many of his contemporaries, who were strongly critical of allegorical literary practices; (b) tried to rehabilitate more traditional, exegetical and symbolical practices of reading Biblical texts; (c) and highlighted, first and foremost, a literal reading of the “Song of Songs” – but tried to do justice to it, in all its complexity.

 

Heft 4

 

AUFSÄTZE

Olaf Briese: Vermenschlichung Gottes oder Vergötterung des Menschen? Die zwei anthropotheistischen Lesarten von Feuerbachs Das Wesen des Christentums

Martin Jemelka: „Brüderliche Treffen zum Lesen des Evangeliums“: die erste Generation des schlesischen Spiritismus (1897-1919)

Hans Martin Dober: Christliche und jüdische Leser der Bibel Rosenzweigs. Beitrag für eine theologische Hermeneutik der Schrift

Konstantin Götschel: Abendland in Bayern. Zum Verhältnis von Abendländischer Bewegung und CSU zwischen 1945 und 1955

 

MISZELLE

Martin Arndt: Selbstsein und Marxismus

 

REZENSIONEN

Christopher Meckstroth: The Struggle for Democracy. Paradoxes of Progress and the Politics of Change, New York: Oxford University Press 2015, 272 S. (Gerhard Altmann)

Stefanie von Schnurbein: Norse Revival: Transformations of Germanic Neopaganism (Studies in Critical Research on Religion, 05), Leiden/Boston: Brill 2016, 430 S. (Karl Banghard)

Konrad Hammann, Rudolf Bultmann und seine Zeit. Biographische und theologische Konstellationen, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2016, VIII. + 295 S. (Friedrich W. Horn)

Anselm Doering-Manteuffel/Jörn Leonhard: Liberalismus im 20. Jahrhundert, Stiftung

Bundespräsident-Theodor-Heuss-Haus, Wissenschaftliche Reihe Band 12, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2015, 347 S. (Joachim H. Knoll)

Maja Hagerman: Käraste Herman. Rasbiologen Herman Lundborgs gåta [Liebster Herman. Das Geheimnis des Rassenbiologen Herman Lundborg], Stockholm: Norstedtsförlag 2015, 402 S. (Luitgard Löw)

Barbara Steiner: Die Inszenierung des Jüdischen. Konversion von Deutschen zum Judentum nach 1945, Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2015, 351 S. (Elvira Grözinger)

 

ABSTRACTS

Olaf Briese: Vermenschlichung Gottes oder Vergötterung des Menschen? Die zwei anthropotheistischen Lesarten von Feuerbachs Das Wesen des Christentums

Disagreement about Feuerbach’s work, The Essence of Christianity, has not abated since its publication in 1841. Feuerbach was ambiguous in his idea of humanity, and there are two alternative, contrasting readings. In the one reading, Feuerbach’s discourse on „the divine in humanity“ has a metaphorical meaning. In the other, it is literal. Do these tendencies intersect in The Essence of Christianity? And does this make interpretations of the work that aim at unification so problematic?

 

Martin Jemelka: „Brüderliche Treffen zum Lesen des Evangeliums“: die erste Generation des schlesischen Spiritismus (1897-1919)

Czech historiography only slowly turns its interest to the study of religious life of lower social classes, industrial and craft workers – representatives of the dominant part of the society from the mid-19th century. Even less attention is paid to heterodox religious currents and their reception among the factory workers. However, the history of smaller religious groups and religious communities on the border of orthodoxy and heterodoxy is not only an elusive
phenomenon, it has its importance and analytical value. That is why this paper focuses on the spiritualism among industrial workers in Czech lands, more precisely in the Ostrava region, which was the centre of Austro-Hungarian and later Czechoslovak heavy industry.

 

Hans Martin Dober: Christliche und jüdische Leser der Bibel Rosenzweigs. Beitrag für eine theologische Hermeneutik der Schrift

How can the Christian reader regard the Old Testament as a canonical part of the bible? This question has been brought up by Notger Slenczka who proposes to regard the Hebrew Bible as a Jewish book which can legitimately find its place among the apocrypha. The article argues that not only in the late essays of Franz Rosenzweig, dealing with questions of hermeneutics being raised in the course of his translation of the Hebrew Bible together with Martin Buber, but also in the Star of Redemption we find arguments to read the whole bible in a Christian and a Jewish perspective. There is good news of God’s grace in the Christian Old Testament already, Rosenzweig gives witness of without a christological principle, which he concedes as a hermeneutical key for the Christian reader. He offers a hermeneutic of the conjunction and, which presupposes a dialogical experience as well as it prepares the way of further dialogue between Christian, Jewish and possible also Muslim or „religious unmusical“ readers of the bible „ this book which founded a „conversation of mankind“. Following Rosenzweig the secret of the biblical narrative is dialogical itself. The other precondition is that the experience the bible gives witness of has three dimensions, including the experience not only of man and the world, but also of God who is one in the Old and the New Testament.

 

Konstantin Götschel: Abendland in Bayern. Zum Verhältnis von Abendländischer Bewegung und CSU zwischen 1945 und 1955

Based on the observation of a prevalence of cultural criticism in German post-war society, this article examines the interrelations of the Abendländische Bewegung and the Christlich-Soziale Union until the mid-1950s. It sheds light on the networks and strategies of the “Abendländer” and their resonance within the CSU, thus analysing whether abendländische positions within the party were the result of a conscious reception or rather of mere semantic analogies.