63. Jahrgang 2011

Inhaltsverzeichnis und Abstracts

 

Heft 1

AUFSÄTZE:
BERNET, CLAUS: Die Toleranz der Dechristianisierung und Desakralisierung: Über die Verbindung von Staat und Religion in der Architektur der Frühen Neuzeit und Moderne, p. 1-22.
ELSAGHE, YAHYA: Sterbehilfe, Glaubensverlust und Religionsersatz in Theodor Storms Bekenntnis, p. 23-44.
SURALL, FRANK: Gespräch mit den Sprachlosen. Pädagogische Dialogizität bei Paulo Freire und Franz Rosenzweig, p. 45-60.
ČTVRTNÍK, MIKULÁŠ: Geistesgeschichte in den tschechischen Ländern: Zdeněk Kalista und die Duchové dĕjiny, p. 61-87.

MISZELLEN:
ZANDER, HELMUT: Esoterikforschung auf dem Weg in die Normalität, p. 88-93.
BIENENSTOCK, MYRIAM: Über die Ironie der Kunst: Hermann Cohen und Karl Solger, p. 94-99.

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, pp. 100-103.
Jean-Luc Nancy: Dekonstruktion des Christentums, Zürich/Berlin: diaphanes 2008 (Thomas Gruber).
William Inboden: Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945-1960. The Soul of Containment, New York: Cambridge University Press 2008 (Gerhard Altmann).

Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des Heftes, p. 104.

ABSTRACTS:
BERNET, CLAUS:
Die Toleranz der Dechristianisierung und Desakralisierung: Über die Verbindung von Staat und Religion in der Architektur der Frühen Neuzeit und Moderne, p. 1-22.
While there are many theoretical models on secularization, there is a shortage of empirical studies, especially in dealing with architecture. The Enlightenment idea of tolerance is not only and exclusively a philosophical idea, but also a concept in architectural theory that has resulted from a process of desacralization and dechristianization. This will be demonstrated using Protestant state theory, the project of a “city of sciences,” the idea of the pantheon, and the treatment of religious free church communities during the 18th century. The high point as well as the turning point is the French Revolution, and its architectural concepts show that dechristianization and the formation of plurality may very well be accompanied by intolerance and even violence.

ELSAGHE, YAHYA: Sterbehilfe, Glaubensverlust und Religionsersatz in Theodor Storms Bekenntnis, p. 23-44.
Theodor Storm’s penultimate work, Ein Bekenntnis (1887), can be situated in a wide variety of contexts suggested by cultural studies, most obviously in that of German colonialism, but perhaps even more usefully in those of legal, medical and religious history. Read in these three contexts, this novella reflects the origins and consequences of the debates about voluntary euthanasia which have continued until the present day, running parallel or counter to the erosion of orthodox Christian belief. Thus Ein Bekenntnis provides unimpeachable testimony in general of the declining authority of Christianity, and moreover and in particular of the need (which has also persisted into the present) to compensate ‘esoterically’ for what is evidently a traumatic loss of faith.

SURALL, FRANK: Gespräch mit den Sprachlosen. Pädagogische Dialogizität bei Paulo Freire und Franz Rosenzweig, p. 45-60.
The form of the dialog occupies a central role in the pedagogical thinking and acting of Paulo Freire (1921-1997) as well as Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929). Despite significant differences in their intellectual background, both agree that the pedagogical dialog does not require linguistic ability. On the contrary, it is the only way out of speechlessness. It rests on the premise that the partners involved in dialog already subconsciously hold a valuable world view, rather than needing to acquire such from others. The partners in dialog become conscious of their own world view and thus overcome their alienation. Freire’s theory of cultural invasion is closely connected to Rosenzweig’s criticism of liberal Judaism on the one hand and Zionism on the other hand, and his dialogical concept distanced itself from both of these in equal measure.

ČTVRTNÍK, MIKULÁŠ: Geistesgeschichte in den tschechischen Ländern: Zdeněk Kalista und die Duchové dĕjiny, p. 61-87.
The paper aims to find the extent to and the way in which Zdeněk Kalista (1900-1982) continued, with his concept of Duchové dĕjiny, in preceding tradition called Geistesgeschichte that appeared in German speaking countries mainly in the beginning of the twentieth century. The last part concentrates on the role that Kalista attributes to the subject in the process of (znovu)prožívání (or „(re)experiencing“) the past

 

Heft 2

AUFSÄTZE
HÜBNER, HOLGER: Der Feldgottesdienst zu Jom Kippur vor Metz 1870, p. 105-121.
KRAH, FRANZISKA: Mit den Waffen der Aufklärung gegen den Antisemitismus. Leben und Wirken Binjamin W. Segels, p. 122-144.
SCHWEIGMANN-GREVE, KAY: Sotzialistisher Kinder Farband (SKIF). Die Kinderorganisation des Allgemeinen Jüdischen Arbeiterbundes seit 1945, p. 145-165.

MISZELLEN
BAUMANN, STEPHANIE: Drei Briefe. Franz Rosenzweig an Siegfried Kracauer, p. 166-176.
KESSLER, MARIO: Der deutschen Kulturwelt zurückgegeben: Simon Dubnows „Buch des Lebens“, p. 177-180.

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 181-207.
Kasten, Erich (Hg.): Schamanen Sibiriens. Magier – Mittler – Heiler, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Vlg./Linden Museum Stuttgart 2009 (Michael Knüppel).
Sozialgeschichtliches Wörterbuch zur Bibel, hg. v. Frank Crüsemann, Kristian Hungar, Claudia Janssen, Rainer Kessler u. Luise Schottroff, Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus 2009 (Friedrich W. Horn).
Abraham Melamed: The Myth of the Jewish Origin of Science and Philosophy [hebr.], Jerusalem: Magnes University Press 2010 (George Y. Kohler).
Wolfgang Benz (Hg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Bd. 2: Personen, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Vlg. 2009 (Armin Pfahl-Traughber).
Uwe Glatz: Religion und Frömmigkeit bei Friedrich Schleiermacher. Theorie der Glaubenskonstitution, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2010 (Martin Arndt).
Vanessa Agnew: Enlightenment Orpheus: The Power of Music in Other Worlds, Oxford: Oxford UP 2008 (Lars Eckstein).
Elias Grünebaum: Die Sittenlehre des Judenthums und andere Bekenntnisse […]. Synoptische Edition der Ausgaben von 1867 und 1878, Köln/Weimar/Berlin: Böhlau 2010 (Görge K. Hasselhoff).
Dieter Adelmann: ‚Reinige dein Denken‘. Über den jüdischen Hintergrund der Philosophie von Hermann Cohen, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann 2010 (Knut Martin Stünkel).
Horst Helas: Die Grenadierstrasse im Berliner Scheunenviertel. Ein Ghetto mit offenen Toren, Berlin: Hentrich & Hentrich 2010 (Akim Jah).
Detlef Joseph: Die DDR und die Juden. Eine kritische Untersuchung. Mit einer Bibliografie von Renate Kirchner, Berlin: Vlg. Das neue Berlin 2010 (Christoph Kopke).
Ingo Stöckmann: Der Wille zum Willen. Der Naturalismus und die Gründung der literarischen Moderne 1880-1900, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter 2009 (Patrick Küppers).
Ann-Katrin Thomm: Alte Jugendbewegung, neue Demokratie. Der Freideutsche Kreis Hamburg in der frühen Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau Vlg. 2010 (Joachim H. Knoll).
Margherita von Brentano: Das Politische und das Persönliche. Eine Collage, Göttingen: Wallstein 2010; Margherita von Brentano: Akademische Schriften, Göttingen: Wallstein 2010 (Helmut Peitsch).
Eckhard Frick/Traugott Roser (Hg.): Spiritualität und Medizin. Gemeinsame Sorge für den kranken Menschen, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2009 (Roland Kipke).
Henning Ritter: Notizhefte. Berlin: Berlin Vlg. 2010 (Gerhard Altmann).

Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des Heftes, p. 208.

ABSTRACTS:
HOLGER HÜBNER: Der Feldgottesdienst zu Jom Kippur vor Metz 1870.
Commemoration of a field service held by 1200 Jewish soldiers protected by their gentile comrades on Yom Kippur of 1870 during the siege of Metz in the Franco-Prussian war played an important role among German Jews as a symbol of acceptance and integration into the society as citizens with equal rights. Based on a short note in several newspapers it became very fast a very common commemoration among Jews. But it was a pious fraud of an act that never happened in the described way. Although this was known and already published in late 1870 it did not hamper the spreading. In recent years this tradition of commemoration was revitalized. This time even in combination with a wrong date: the day when the French garrison of Metz surrendered. Moreover, it is described even by officials as an act of traditional religious tolerance in the German armed forces.

FRANZISKA KRAH: Mit den Waffen der Aufklärung gegen den Antisemitismus: Leben und Wirken Binjamin W. Segels.
The rise of political anti-Semitism in Imperial and Weimar Germany met with public opposition initiated primarily by Jews. From various perspectives, jewish journalists and intellectuals investigated the origin of this anti-Semitism, its different manifestations as well as possibilities of its public rejection. Journalist Binjamin W. Segel (1866-1931) hereby focused his efforts on debunking anti-Semitic myths, such as the Jewish World Conspiracy, as popularized by the text “The protocols of the Elders of Zion”. In his writings, Segel, with an Eastern European background, pays attention to the discrimination of “Ostjuden” (East-European Jews) in particular. Furthermore, Segel deals with questions regarding the origins of anti-Semitism, and the effectiveness of Jewish opposition towards it. The following article outlines his life and discusses his work.

KAY SCHWEIGMANN-GREVE: Sotzialistisher Kinder Farband (SKIF): Die Kinderorganisation des Allgemeinen Jüdischen Arbeiterbundes seit 1945.
Following the liberation of Poland 1945, the childrens organization of the Jewish-Socialdemocratic “Bund” SKIF formed itself anew and remained in existence until the communists’ ban of social democratic organizations. Starting with the first post-war conference of the International of social democratic children and youth education in October 1945 until the mid-sixties the SKIF played a recognizable role within these international structures of the “Falcons” movement. In the late forties the SKIF simultaneously existed in Paris, where a successor organization is still active, and in Brussels. During the seventies and eighties a “SKIF-ist” holiday colony existed in New York and from 1950 until this day further groups exist in Melbourne. Since 1945 the SKIF has existed primarily as an organization of survivors and their children. Later it managed to develop a new function and to offer an educational model for the following generations of Jewish children, which lies beyond religion and Zionism.

 

Heft 3

AUFSÄTZE:
KNOLL, JOACHIM H.: Vom Niedergang des akademischen Stils. Professoren im Wandel der Zeit, p. 209-233.
BOCKWOLDT, GERD: Das Bild des Juden in den Märchen der Brüder Grimm, p. 234-249.
NIEMEYER, CHRISTIAN: „Ich lasse eben alle Antisemiten erschiessen…“ Über die Hintergründe für Nietzsches spätes Bekenntnis zum exterminatorischen Anti-Antisemitismus, p. 250-272.
SCHAAD, MARTIN: Eine Rehabilitierungs-Maßnahme. Alfred Kurellas Kritik an Bertolt Brechts Lob der Parteidisziplin, p. 273-298.

MISZELLE
KNÜPPEL, MICHAEL: Zu alttürkisch addmuz roš(a)n t(ä)ŋri, p. 299-302.

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 303-311
Guntram Förster/Andreas E. J. Grote/Christof Müller (Hg.): Spiritus et Littera. Beiträge zur Augustinus-Forschung. Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Cornelius Petrus Mayer OSA, Würzburg: Augustinus bei Echter 2009 (Görge K. Hasselhoff).
Manfred Hutter: Handbuch Bahā’ī. Geschichte – Theologie – Gesellschaftsbezug, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer 2009 (Wahied Wahdat-Hagh).
Wolfgang Benz (Hg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Band 3: Begriffe, Theorien, Ideologien, Berlin: De Gruyter Saur 2010 (Armin Pfahl-Traughber).
Oliver Arnhold: „Entjudung“ – Kirche im Abgrund. Teil 1: Die Thüringer Kirchenbewegung Deutsche Christen 1928-1939, Teil 2: „Institut zur Erforschung und Beseitigung des jüdischen Einflusses auf das deutsche kirchliche Leben“ 1939-1945, Berlin: Inst. Kirche und Judentum 2010 (Lukas Bormann).
Jürgen Peter Schmied: Sebastian Haffner. Eine Biographie, München: C. H. Beck 2010 (Joachim H. Knoll).
Fritz Breithaupt: Kulturen der Empathie, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2009 (Martin Arndt).

ABSTRACTS:
JOACHIM H. KNOLL
Vom Niedergang des akademischen Stils.
Professoren im Wandel der Zeit.
This article argues that German universities have changed in structure and style and in doing so have distanced themselves from the classic university ideal. This thesis will be illustrated with examples. This development has led to changes that make it plausible to speak of a decline of academic style and professorial culture. Even though almost all reform writings promise not to touch the legacy of the classical university idea, the continuous reform processes (regulation of the university and compartmentalization of disciplines) have made it increasingly difficult to uphold the university’s independence. These external developments have also had an effect on the social climate and the respectful cooperation of professors, staff, and students. Even if such blanket statements do not apply everywhere, the reforms should nevertheless keep the history of the university in mind and maintain „as much Humboldt as possible.“

GERD BOCKWOLDT
Das Bild des Juden in den Märchen der Brüder Grimm.
This article analyzes whether anti-Judaism, which was widespread during the German Romantic period and which was evident in organizations such as the „Christlich deutsche Tischgesellschaft“ (a German Christian Society), and here especially in Achim von Arnim, also included the Brothers Grimm. One could conclude so when considering mainly the publishing history of their collection of fairy tales, which since its third edition (1837) has been appended. The same was already true for the previously published selection of tales for children (1825). However, a closer look reveals the stylistic nature of these appendixes, which provided a linguistic characterization for the tales’ character types (Jew, farmer, soldier, etc.). The actual problem that the Brothers Grimm – especially Wilhelm Grimm – did not recognize and/or ignored is evident in the breaches of law as depicted in the fairy tales „Der gute Handel“ and „Der Jude im Dorn.“ Thus, while one cannot accuse the Brothers Grimm of clear-cut anti-Judaism, one can fault them for their careless handling of problematic texts. Their reception still causes irritation today.

CHRISTIAN NIEMEYER
„Ich lasse eben alle Antisemiten erschiessen…“
Über die Hintergründe für Nietzsches spätes Bekenntnis zum
exterminatorischen Anti-Antisemitismus.
Recent studies, such as the one by Thomas Mittmann, have drawn new attention to Nietzsche’s position towards anti-Semitism. In this context, the following article will delineate a few main ideas on this topic and strive to define Nietzsche’s early anti-Semitism more clearly and with regard to the factors that influenced it. The same will be done for Nietzsche’s late anti-anti-Semitism, which culminated in his ominous statement: „Just now I am having all anti-Semites shot.“

MARTIN SCHAAD
Eine Rehabilitierungs-Maßnahme.
Alfred Kurellas Kritik an Bertolt Brechts Lob der Parteidisziplin
This essay seeks to illuminate the motives behind Alfred Kurella’s damning review of Bertold Brecht’s Lehrstück The Measures Taken. This review of 1931 is commonly regarded as having turned the official marxist literary critique against Brecht, straining the relations between the playwright and the nomenklatura for the years that followed. Yet, a closer examination of Alfred Kurella‘s biography reveals that his review of The Measures Taken has much less to do with Bertold Brecht or with marxist cultural politics, than with the serious political difficulties its author was facing at the time.

 

Heft 4

AUFSÄTZE:
STAUSBERG, MICHAEL: Der Zoroastrismus als iranische Religion und die Semantik von ‚Iran‘ in der zoroastrischen Religionsgeschichte, pp. 313-331
SPLITTER, WOLFGANG: „Wir bitten euch, dieses Geld anzunehmen“. Jüdische Hilfe für die Salzburger und Berchtesgadener Emigranten 1732/33. pp. 332-347
CZERMAK, GERHARD: Grundfragen des deutschen Religionsverfassungsrechts in Theorie und Praxis. Ein kritischer Überblick, pp. 348-363
TAMIR, DAN: Some Thoughts about Hebrew Fascism in Inter-war Palestine, pp. 364-381

MISZELLEN:
HASSELHOFF, GÖRGE K.: Mehr als hundert Teilbände. Ein Zwischenbericht zu den Fontes Christiani, pp. 382-390
IHDE, CHRISTIAN: Der älteste jüdische Friedhof von Düsseldorf. Historische
Angaben und archäologische Untersuchungen, pp. 391-394

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, pp. 395-413
Eric G. Wilson: Unglücklich Glücklich. Von europäischer Melancholie und American Happiness, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 2009 (Martin Arndt)
Jan Assmann/Harald Strohm (Hg.), Magie und Religion , München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag 2010 (Bernd-Christian Otto)
Ran HaCohen: Reclaiming the Hebrew Bible. German Jewish Reception of
Biblical Criticism, Berlin: DeGruyter 2010 (George Y. Kohler)
Mogens Trolle Larsen: Versunkene Paläste. Wie Europa den Orient entdeckte, Berlin: Osburg 2010 (Felix Wiedemann)
Emidio Campi/Ruedi Reich (Hg.): Consensus Tigurinus (1549): Die Einigung
zwischen Heinrich Bullinger und Johannes Calvin über das Abendmahl. Werden,
Wertung, Bedeutung, Zürich: Theologischer Verlag Zürich 2009 (Görge K. Hasselhoff)
Charles Taylor: Ein säkulares Zeitalter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag
2009 (Martin Arndt)
Peter Watson: Der Deutsche Genius. Eine Geistes- und Kulturgeschichte von
Bach bis Benedikt XVI., München: C. Bertelsmann Verlag 2010 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Richard Faber/Brunhilde Wehinger (Hg.): Aufklärung in Geschichte und Gegenwart,
Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann 2010 (Claudia Albert)
Wolfgang Benz (Hg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte
und Gegenwart. Band 4: Ereignisse, Dekrete, Kontroversen, Berlin: De Gruyter
Saur 2011 (Armin Pfahl-Traughber)
Monika Schwarz-Friesel/Evyatar Friesel/Jehuda Reinharz (Hg.): Aktueller Antisemitismus - ein Phänomen der Mitte. Berlin und New York: De Gruyter 2010 (Christoph Kopke)
Friedrich Wilhelm Graf/Friedemann Voigt (Hg.): Religion(en) Deuten Transformationen der Religionsforschung, Berlin/New York: De Gruyter 2010 (Martin Arndt)

In der Redaktion eingegangene Bücher, p. 414

ABSTRACTS

STAUSBERG, MICHAEL
Der Zoroastrismus als iranische Religion und die Semantik von ‚Iran‘ in der zoroastrischen Religionsgeschichte
Zoroastrianism, one of the three recognized religious minorities in the Islamic Republic, can claim a specific linkage with Iran since the Avestan Vendidād and its other primary religious documents were written in Iranian languages and its history has for the most part unfolded in Iran (in a larger geographical sense). The term Aryan is used in inscriptions by the Achaemenian king Darius I as a way to gloss the name of the deity Ahura Mazdā (the ‘God of the Aryans’). In the Sasanian period, Iran became the name of the empire. Zoroastrian literature written under Islamic rule, reaffirms the idea of a unity between kingship and (Zoroastrian) religion, but transposes its realization into the eschatological future. After centuries of decline and discrimination, twentieth-century modernization entailed the prospect of societal reintegration for Zoroastrians; an unachieved hope under the Pahlavis, this prospect has become even more remote under the political conditions imposed by the Islamic Republic, where Zoroastrians now use the vocabulary of martyrdom to express their commitment to their homeland.

SPLITTER, WOLFGANG
„Wir bitten euch, dieses Geld anzunehmen“.
Jüdische Hilfe für die Salzburger und Berchtesgadener Emigranten 1732/33
The expulsion of the Lutherans from the Catholic Archbishopric of Salzburg and adjacent Berchtesgaden is a prominent example of early modern confessional migration. Until now, however, the liberal support these emigrants enjoyed from Jewish individuals and entire Jewish communities on their way to Brandenburg-Prussia and other Protestant territories has not yet received any scholarly attention of note. Based on contemporary sources, this article analyzes all known cases of Jews aiding these expellees. While anti-Jewish sentiments widely persisted among German Lutherans, pietist theologians cultivated a mission-oriented philo-Judaism, interpreting the Jews’ help for the emigrants as a harbinger of a lasting Jewish-Christian rapprochement. The Jews’ support challenged classical anti-Jewish stereotypes by turning the traditional
roles of Jews and Christians in pre-modern society upside down.

CZERMAK, GERHARD
Grundfragen des deutschen Religionsverfassungsrechts in Theorie und Praxis.
Ein kritischer Überblick
The article outlines the development and most important features of the religious constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany, as constituted in the Grundgesetz (the German Costitution) and the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court. Under the basic principle of neutrality, it constitutes a system of separation with single aspects of cooperation of the state and religious communities. It is also a system of wide freedom and of kindness to religion. Nonreligious worldviews are explicitly equated for individuals as well as for religious and n onreligious associations. This system is in theory exemplary, but holed by contradictory laws, church-state-treaties and one-sided financial subventions in a huge dimension. The indirect influence of the large Christian churches is remarkable. Christian institutions dominate the social services – with unpleasing consequences for over 1 million employees, who are subject to a special employment law. Meanwhile, low-level discrimination of small religious communities continues.

TAMIR, DAN
Some Thoughts about Hebrew Fascism in Inter-war Palestine
During the 1920s and 1930s, fascist movements and groups flourished all around the world. Relying on Robert Paxton’s postulate that the emergence of a fascist movement is an inherent part of modern societies with mass politics, this article examines the probable existence of such a fascist movement in the Hebrew society in Palestine of the time. After a short introduction of concepts of generic fascism and a review of the current state of research into the subject, the article discusses some aspects and characteristics of generic fascism which are specifically significant to this case study.