61. Jahrgang 2009

Inhaltsverzeichnis und Abstracts

 

Heft 1

AUFSÄTZE:
WIEDEMANN, FELIX: Der doppelte Orient. Zur völkischen Orientromantik des Ludwig Ferdinand Clauß, p. 1-24
HILDESHEIMER, MEIR: Auserwähltes Volk und Staatsbürger. Juden und Nichtjuden in der Lehre von Rabbi Elias Gutmacher, p. 25-47
TWELLMANN, MARCUS: Das andere Zeremoniell. Gottesdienst im Zeitalter der Aufklärung, p. 48-69

MISZELLEN:
LUDEWIG, ANNA-DOROTHEA: „Der Totenschein als Entréebillet zum Paradies“. Anmerkungen zum Bild des Märtyrers in der Moderne, p. 70-73
GÖRNER, RÜDIGER: Wortglauben. Hölderlins Suche nach poetischer Zeugenschaft, p. 74-80

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 81-101
Peter Antes: Grundriss der Religionsgeschichte. Von der Prähistorie bis zur Gegenwart, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2006 (Michael Stausberg)
Max Küchler: Jerusalem. Ein Handbuch und Studienreiseführer zur heiligen Stadt, Bd. IV/2: Orte und Landschaften der Bibel, Göttingen: V & R 2007 (Friedrich W. Horn)
Martin Bucer: Deutsche Schriften, Bd. 9,2: Religionsgespräche (1541-1542), Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus 2007; Bd. 11,3: Schriften zur Kölner Reformation, Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus 2006 (Görge K. Hasselhoff)
Konrad Paul Liessmann: Theorie der Unbildung. Die Irrtümer der Wissensgesellschaft, Wien: Paul Zsolnay Verlag 2006 (Joachim H. Knoll)
John F. Jungclausen: Risse in weissen Fassaden. Der Verfall des hanseatischen Bürgeradels, München: Siedler 2006 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Andreas Urs Sommer: Sinnstiftung durch Geschichte? Zur Entstehung spekulativ-universalistischer Geschichtsphilosophie zwischen Bayle und Kant, Basel: Schwabe Verlag 2006 (Reinhard Mehring)
Carol Iancu: Alexandre Safrian – Une vie de combat, un faisceau de lumière, Université Paul Valery – Montpellier III 2007 (Rainer Riemenschneider)
Ulrich Sieg: Deutschlands Prophet. Paul de Lagarde und die Ursprünge des modernen Antisemitismus, München: Hanser 2007 (Reinhard Mehring)
Stefan Breuer: Die Völkischen in Deutschland. Kaiserreich und Weimarer Republik, Darmstadt: WBG 2008 (Gideon Botsch)
Hans-Christian Harten/Uwe Neirich/Matthias Schwerendt: Rassenhygiene als Erziehungsideologie des Dritten Reichs. Bio-bibliographisches Handbuch, Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2006 (Christoph Kopke)
Ralph Ghadban: Tariq Ramadan und die Islamisierung Europas, Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler 2006 (Johannes Twardella)

In der Redaktion eingegangene Bücher, p. 102-103

Mitarbeiter des Heftes, p. 104

ABSTRACTS
WIEDEMANN, FELIX: Der doppelte Orient. Zur völkischen Orientromantik des Ludwig Ferdinand Clauß, p. 1-24
One of the main topics of the völkisch racial scientist Ludwig Ferdinand Clauß was the racial cartography of the Orient. Based on older discussions in anti-Semitic literature, Clauß constructed a racially divided – double – Orient and made a sharp distinction between Arabs and Jews. His depiction largely follows patterns of ascription from Orientalist as well as anti-Semitic discourses. By doing so he draws attention to structural overlaps and differences between Orientalism and anti-Semitism: a romanticized Arabic Orient served as an antipole to a “Nordic” Europe, and as such was finally able to advance to a positive alternative. The Jewish Orient, on the other hand, embodied for Clauß a threatening ambivalence and contrariety, which from the very beginning precluded romanticization and identification.

HILDESHEIMER, MEIR: Auserwähltes Volk und Staatsbürger. Juden und Nichtjuden in der Lehre von Rabbi Elias Gutmacher, p. 25-47
The Jewish emancipation in Germany (1869-1871) brought about a fundamental change in the position of Jews in state and society, leading to a rapprochement between Jews and their non-Jewish surroundings. For religious Jews, this transition into neutral society brought up fundamental theological questions: How is emancipation to be evaluated from a religious perspective? What is the appropriate relationship with the state? How should Jews interact with Gentiles? How could Jews integrate into society without denying the singularity of Israel and without neglecting their religious obligations? Rabbi Elias Gutmacher (1796-1874) was one of the religious leaders of Judaism in Germany whose scholarship was deeply concerned with such questions. Gutmacher was from Grätz in the Posen region and became primarily known as a cabbalist. The following article summarizes his views on the topic, which can be found in his literary oeuvre and most of all in his sermons.

TWELLMANN, MARCUS: Das andere Zeremoniell. Gottesdienst im Zeitalter der Aufklärung, p. 48-69
During the first half of the 18th century, court-orientated scholarship helped shape a concept of „ceremony“ that had a great impact on religious practices in a number of ways: First, this scholarship itself fostered a „politicization“ of church services by subjugating them to the criteria of decorum and political utility. Second, in analogy to courtly ceremonies, church service was understood as a sign of reverence aiming to win grace. A critical religious philosophy, blaming this understanding for superstitious cult practices, foreclosed the full development of an ethical understanding of ceremony that was already recognizable in the philosophical foundations of the older ceremonial sciences. At the end of the century such an understanding continued to be pursued only within the context of justifying Jewish ceremonial law.

 

Heft 2

AUFSÄTZE:
BORMANN, LUKAS: Jüdische oder römische Perspektive? Neue Studien zum römisch dominierten Judäa – Ein kritischer Literaturbericht, pp. 105-123
KLEINSCHMIDT, HARALD: Lichtwahrnehmung und Pfingstauffassung im Frühmittelalter, pp. 124-142
GREGÓRIO SOUZA: Krieg und Glaube. Die Revue Spirite 1870/1871, pp. 143-156
TIESLER, NINA CLARA: Diaspora ohne Religion? Zur Konjunktur des Diaspora-Konzepts in den Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 157-170

MISZELLEN:
PLÖCKINGER, OTHMAR: Heinrich Himmlers Privatexemplar von Mein Kampf als zeitgeschichtliche Quelle, pp. 171-178
KNÜPPEL, MICHAEL: „Manichäische Studien“. Ein neues Forschungs-Projekt, pp. 179-182

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, pp. 183-207
Jörg Rüpke: Historische Religionswissenschaft. Eine Einführung, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2007 (Michael Stausberg)
Peter Schäfer: Jesus im Talmud. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck Verlag 2007 (Alfred Bodenheimer)
Martin Meiser: Galater. Novum Testamentum Patristicum, hg. v. Andreas Merkt u. Tobias Nicklas, Bd. 9, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht 2007 (Friedrich Wilhelm Horn)
Martin Hengel/Anne Marie Schwemer: Jesus und das Judentum. Geschichte des frühen Christentums, Bd. 1, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2007 (Friedrich Wilhelm Horn)
Ulrich Dehn: Religionen in Ostasien und christliche Begegnungen, Frankfurt a. M.: Verlag Otto Lembeck 2006 (Lukas Pokorny)
Daniel Krockmalnik/Hanna Liss/Ronen Reichmann (Hg.): Raschi und sein Erbe: Internationale Tagung der Hochschule für Jüdische Studien mit der Stadt Worms, Heidelberg: Winter 2007 (Görge K. Hasselhoff)
Monika Preuß: Gelehrte Juden. Lernen als Frömmigkeit in der frühen Neuzeit, Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2007 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Alf Lüdtke/Reiner Prass (Hg.): Gelehrtenleben. Wissenschaftspraxis in der Neuzeit, Köln/Weimar/Wien: Böhlau 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Dirk Hartwig/Walter Homolka/Michael J. Marx/Angelika Neuwirth (Hg.): „Im vollen Licht der Geschichte“. Die Wissenschaft des Judentums und die Anfänge der kritischen Koranforschung, Würzburg: Ergon 2008 (Görge K. Hasselhoff)
Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Invention of Scotland. Myth and History, New Haven/London: Yale University Press 2008 (Gerhard Altmann)
Eberhard Straub: Kaiser Wilhelm II. in der Politik seiner Zeit. Die Erfindung des Reiches aus dem Geist der Moderne, Berlin 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Thomas Brechenmacher (Hg.): Das Reichskonkordat 1933. Forschungsstand, Kontroversen, Dokumente, Paderborn u. a.: Ferdinand Schöningh 2007 (Christoph Kopke)
Michael Kleff: Die Burg Waldeck Festivals 1964-1969. Chanson, Folklore International, Hambergen: Bear Family Records 2008 (Hanno Botsch)
Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid/Hilal Sezgin: Mohammed und die Zeichen Gottes. Der Koran und die Zukunft des Islam, Freiburg i. Br.: Herder 2008 (Johannes Twardella)

Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des Heftes, pp. 208

ABSTRACTS
BORMANN, LUKAS: Jüdische oder römische Perspektive? Neue Studien zum römisch dominierten Judäa – Ein kritischer Literaturbericht
This article reports on the most important results of recent studies published in German that deal with Roman-dominated Judea/Palestine and contextualizes them within international research. Publications by Monika Bernett, Werner Eck, Linda-Marie Günther, Achim Lichtenberger and Julia Wilker offer an equally intense examination of the sources, but significantly differ in their perspectives. The question behind the examination asks whether this region has developed in a particular manner that has been shaped and created by Jewish religion and culture, or whether it was a „normal“ Roman province with a history shaped by the same circumstances and events as other parts of the Roman Empire. In the case of Judea, the findings of historical research are simultaneously at the center of contemporary legitimizing discourses. The discussion pleads for a cultural comparative historical investigation that critically questions the binary opposition of Jewish versus pagan.

KLEINSCHMIDT, HARALD: Lichtwahrnehmung und Pfingstauffassung im Frühmittelalter
The early medieval exegesis of the Pentecost account in the Acts of the Apostles emphasised the divine origin of the light that some early medieval theologians, specifically Hrabanus Maurus, believed to have descended upon the Apostles (or the congregation) and provided them with special powers. The following article links Hrabanus Maurus’s exegetical work with early pictorial representations of Pentecost as well as medieval theories of action.

GREGÓRIO SOUZA: Krieg und Glaube . Die Revue Spirite 1870/1871
In 1870, the most important journal of Allan Kardec’s spiritist school, the „Revue Spirite“, ascribes a superlative role to France in the intellectual world and encourages soldiers to defend their fatherland. The defeat against Prussia is interpreted as a punishment for crimes of the Premier Empire. The journal recognizes the necessity of reforms, but it doesn’t support the Commune in 1871.

TIESLER, NINA CLARA: Diaspora ohne Religion? Zur Konjunktur des Diaspora-Konzepts in den Sozialwissenschaften
At taking a critical perspective on the loss of analytical categories, this article discusses the enormous proliferation of Diaspora-concepts in social sciences at large, and in particular with regard to discourses on Muslims in Europe. In the era of international migration, the experience of homelessness, deriving from the loss of the myth of religio-cultural and ethno-linguistically singularity in contemporary societies, seems to become an universal phenomenon. Questions of home and belonging are key issues in the current discourses on Diaspora which, since the turning point of 1989, developed aggressively beyond those academic disciplines concerned with religion.

 

Heft 3

AUFSÄTZE:
FERRUTA, PAOLA: Zwischen ‚Wissenschaft des Judentums’ und politischem Messianismus. Saint-Simonismus und deutsche Reformbewegung, pp. 209-233
HARTWIG, DIRK: Die „Wissenschaft des Judentums“ und die Anfänge der kritischen Koranforschung. Perspektiven einer modernen Koranhermeneutik, pp. 234-256
PELLONI, GABRIELLA: Die Rhetorik der Degeneration in der antisemitischen Literatur. Das Bild des „entarteten“ jüdischen Künstlers, pp. 257-272

MISZELLEN:
DANCKWORTT, BARBARA: Judenfeindschaft im 16. Jahrhundert. Die Brüder Drachenfuß und der Salzhandel in der Mark Brandenburg, pp. 273-279
BOTSCH, GIDEON: Neues vom Mufti? Palästina und der Nationalsozialismus, pp. 280-286

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, pp. 287-311
Rudolf Langthaler/Herta Nagl-Docekal (Hg.): Glauben und Wissen. Ein Symposium mit Jürgen Habermas, Wien: Akademie Verlag/Oldenbourg Verlag 2007 (Martin Arndt)
Edwin A. Judge: The First Christians in the Roman World. Augustean and New Testament Essays, Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck 2008 (Friedrich W. Horn)
Ayse Basal-Gürdal: „Allah ist das Licht von Himmel und Erde“. Der Lichtvers Sura 24 an-Nur 35. Seine Bedeutung im Kontext der Offenbarung und Grundzüge seiner Auslegung in der islamischen Gelehrsamkeit, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag 2008 (Johannes Twardella)
Gerhard Wehr: Theo-Sophia. Christlich-abendländische Theosophie. Eine vergessene Unterströmung, Zug/Schweiz: Die grauen Edition 2007 (Helga Völkening)
Friedemann Stengel (Hg.): Kant und Swedenborg. Zugänge zu einem umstrittenen Verhältnis, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag 2008 (Martin Arndt)
Klaus-Dieter Alicke: Lexikon der jüdischen Gemeinden im deutschen Sprachraum, Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus 2008 (Julius H. Schoeps)
Christoph Nonn: Antisemitismus, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 2008 (Gideon Botsch)
Peggy Cossmann: Physiodicee und Weltnemesis. Eugen Dührings physiomoralische Begründung des Moral- und Charakterantisemitismus, Göttingen: Wallstein 2007 (Mario Keßler)
Handbuch der völkischen Wissenschaften. Personen – Institutionen – Forschungsprogramme – Stiftungen. Hg. v. Ingo Haar/Michael Fahlbusch unter Mitarbeit v. Matthias Berg, München: K. G. Saur 2008 (Christoph Kopke)
Susannah Heschel: The Aryan Jesus. Christian Theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany, Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press 2008 (Felix Wiedemann)
Thomas Meyer: Vom Ende der Emanzipation. Jüdische Philosophie und Theologie nach 1933, Göttingen: V&R 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Lothar Gall: Walther Rathenau, Porträt einer Epoche, München: C. H. Beck 2009 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Hartmut von Hentig: Mein Leben – bedacht und bejaht. Kindheit und Jugend, München: Carl Hanser 2007 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Kai Burkhardt: Adolf Grimme (1889-1963). Eine Biografie, Köln/Weimar/Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2007 (Joachim H. Knoll)

Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des Heftes, p. 312

ABSTRACTS
FERRUTA, PAOLA: Zwischen ‚Wissenschaft des Judentums’ und politischem Messianismus. Saint-Simonismus und deutsche Reformbewegung
The relationship between the religious political group of the Saint-Simonians and the German movement for political reform around 1830 has already been amply investigated. Significantly less explored is the Jewish aspect of this connection. The article focuses on the significance of the participation of the Jewish members of the Saint-Simonian movement and the cultural transfer initiated by them with German Jewish intellectuals and political activists such as Gabriel Riesser.

HARTWIG, DIRK: Die „Wissenschaft des Judentums“ und die Anfänge der kritischen Koranforschung. Perspektiven einer modernen Koranhermeneutik
This article traces the beginnings of critical Qur’anic Studies to the nineteenth-century scholars of the so-called Science of Judaism school (Wissenschaft des Judentums). Until the 1930s, when the rise of the Nazis violently suppressed Jewish scholarly activities in Germany and elsewhere, generations of scholars such as Abraham Geiger who is better known as an early leader of the Jewish Reform Movement dedicated their lives to the study of the Qur’an and established a new discipline: Qur’anic Studies. These scholars, in many ways pioneers in their fields, authored a series of significant studies that contextualized the foundational documents of Islam with Rabbinic literature and were the first to undertake an unbiased study of early Islamic writings.

PELLONI, GABRIELLA: Die Rhetorik der Degeneration in der antisemitischen Literatur. Das Bild des „entarteten“ jüdischen Künstlers
This essay analyses the specific rhetoric of degeneration which was observable in the antisemitic polemic discourse of the last decades of 19th century. It provides an overview of the representation of Jewish art und artists as it took shape in the anti-Semitic literature of the Wilhelminian epoch. The growing emphasis placed by psychiatrists and racial theorists on the pathologies of the „Jewish race“, such as hysteria or degeneration, resulted in the tendency to pathologize Jewish art and artists, which were deemed responsible for the alleged decline of German culture. Mere aesthetic categories underwent a process of reduction and ideologization and were finally used for defamatory purposes, as shown in the case of the antisemitic denigration of Heinrich Heine. In order to demonstrate this, the analysis outlines the strict dichotomic logic of these argumentations, as the definition and consolidation of an ideal German essence was usually based on the construction of a degenerated Jewish identity

 

 

Heft 4

AUFSÄTZE:
KIPPENBERG, HANS G.: Joachim Wachs Bild vom George-Kreis und seine Revision von Max Webers Soziologie religiöser Gemeinschaften, pp. 313-331
LIEBER, LAURA: Portraits of Righteousness: Noah in Early Christian and Jewish Hymnography, pp. 332-355
WIRTH, GÜNTER: Paul Hofmann, die Berliner Universität und seine neue Humanitätsphilosophie, pp. 356-371
GROTRIAN, ETTA: Kontroversen um die Deutungshoheit. Museumsdebatte, Historikerstreit und „neue Geschichtsbewegung“ in der Bundesrepublik der 1980er Jahre, pp. 372-389

MISZELLEN
HASSELHOFF, GÖRGE K.: Neuerscheinungen zum Calvinjahr. Einführungen, Textausgaben und Spezialuntersuchungen, pp. 390-397
THEIN, HELEN: Atemhauch der Heiligkeit? Publikationen über Simone Weil anlässlich ihres 100. Geburtstages, pp. 398-402

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, pp. 403-415
Rainer Albert Müller/Rainer Christoph Schwinges (Hg.): Wissenschaftsfreiheit in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Basel: Schwabe Verlag 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Ralf-Peter Märtin, Die Varus-Schlacht. Rom und die Germanen, Frankfurt a. M.: S. Fischer 2008 (Gideon Botsch)
Johann Kirchinger/Ernst Schütz (Hg.): Georg Ratzinger (1844-1899). Ein Leben zwischen Politik, Geschichte und Seelsorge, Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner Verlag 2008 (Hannes Ludyga)
Robert Michels: Soziale Bewegungen zwischen Dynamik und Erstarrung. Essays zur Arbeiter-, Frauen- und nationalen Bewegung, hg. v. Timm Genett, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Werner Bergmann/Ulrich Sieg (Hg.): Antisemitische Geschichtsbilder, Essen: Klartext Verlag 2009 (Felix Wiedemann)
Thomas F. Schneider/Julia Heinemann/Frank Hischer/Johanna Kuhlmann/Peter Puls: Die Autoren und Bücher der deutschsprachigen Literatur zum Ersten Weltkrieg 1914-1939. Ein bio-bibliographisches Handbuch, Göttingen: VR unipress im Universitätsverlag Osnabrück 2008 (Christoph Kopke)
Irina Liebmann: Wäre es schön? Es wäre schön. Mein Vater Rudolf Herrnstadt, Berlin: Berlin Verlag 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)
Kurt Graulich/Dieter Simon (Hg.): Terrorismus und Rechtsstaatlichkeit. Analysen, Handlungsoptionen, Perspektiven, Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2007 (Timo-Christian Heger)

Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des Heftes, p. 416

ABSTRACTS
KIPPENBERG, HANS G.: Joachim Wachs Bild vom George-Kreis und seine Revision von Max Webers Soziologie religiöser Gemeinschaften
Since the publication of the In Memoriam of Stefan George in “Understanding and Believing. Essays by Jochim Wach edited by Joseph Kitagawa” (1968) the George-circle is seen as a major source for Wach’s understanding of religion. According to the author nature is not a realm of abstract laws but the place where the divine reveals itself in the physical. Yet the In Memoriam was not composed by Wach, but by Gerardus van der Leeuw in 1934 and happend, by chance, to find its way among the posthumous papers of Wach. From other statements we know that Wach rejected pagan conceptions of the epiphany of the divine. Nevertheless there exists an impact of the George-circle on Wach’s sociology of religion. He was an early reader of Max Webers “Sociology of Religion (Types of Religious Communities)” (1921/22), in which Weber chose as perspective a growing disenchantment of the world. Wach adopted the typology, but rejected Weber’s systematics. The reason can be found in his essay on the relationship between Master and Disciple from 1925. Here he analyzed the George-circle as a case in point that the charisma of a master possesses a metaphysical quality that is resistant against the power of disenchantment. In contrast to Weber who correlated the varieties of religious communities with social conditions, Wach studied them as variations of genuine religious expressions.

LIEBER, LAURA: Portraits of Righteousness: Noah in Early Christian and Jewish Hymnography
The transformation of Noah into a Christian ideal in the writings of Aphrahat and Ephrem (4th century), with the resulting denigration of Noah in much rabbinic exegesis, is well documented. The purpose of this essay is to examine the characterization of Noah in the liturgical (as opposed to the scholarly) setting. Four groups of works are examined: the Hebrew Avodah poems and the hymns of Ephrem the Syrian (4th century); and the kontakia of Romanos the Melodist and the liturgical poems of the Jewish poet Yannai (6th century). These sources reveal that the individual poets felt great freedom to shape the character of Noah in distinctive ways, engaging with the various traditions of interpretation evident in the prose sources but using them in individualized ways. The resulting picture of Noah, when these poetic sources are brought to bear on the discussion, is much less predictable and more dynamic than might be assumed from study of the more “academic” prose sources alone.

WIRTH, GÜNTER: Paul Hofmann, die Berliner Universität und seine neue Humanitätsphilosophie
In light of the upcoming anniversary of the Berlin University, this study of the philosopher Paul Hofmann analyzes his precarious position as lecturer at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, which was abruptly terminated in 1938 because of his Jewish ancestry and his anti-Nazi position. After years of inner migration, Hofmann resumed teaching as Ordinarius and with new impulses in 1945. At the core of his philosophy was the philosophy of humanity that developed from different positions in his major work “Sinn und Geschichte.” He provided his philosophy with new accents after 1945, while already suffering from severe illness. The study is based on extensive archival material.

GROTTRIAN, ETTA: Kontroversen um die Deutungshoheit. Museumsdebatte, Historikerstreit und „neue Geschichtsbewegung“ in der Bundesrepublik der 1980er Jahre
In the 1980s, identity was a key concept in historical political debates in the Federal Republic of Germany. But this identity discourse comprised not only the publicly fought Historikerstreit (Historians’ Debate) and the discussion of plans by the federal government to establish two major history museums, but also the conflict with the „new history movement“, which developed as a counterpoint to the field of history at the universities.