60. Jahrgang 2008

Inhaltsverzeichnis und Abstracts

 

Heft 1

SCHOEPS, JULIUS H.: Editorial

AUFSÄTZE:
KNOLL, JOACHIM H.: Jahresringe der Religions- und Geistesgeschichte. Jubiläen und Erinnerungen anläßlich des 100. Geburtstages von Hans-Joachim Schoeps, des „60sten“ der „Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte“ und des „50sten“ der „Gesellschaft für Geistesgeschichte“ , p. 1-19
HAFNER, JOHANN EV.: Monstranz – Gott zeigen. Das Fronleichnamsfest aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive, p. 20-40
BEN-ASHER GITLER, INBAL: Reconstructing Religions: Jewish place and space in the Jerusalem YMCA Building, 1919-1933, p. 41-62
HOMOLKA, WALTER: Jesus der Jude Die jüdische Leben-Jesu-Forschung von Abraham Geiger bis Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich, p. 63-72

MISZELLEN:
DATHE, UWE: Jena – eine Episode aus Gershom Scholems Leben, p. 73-78
KNOLL, JOACHIM H.: „Was man weiß, was man wissen sollte“. Lerngesellschaft in der Bildungskrise?, p. 79-82
SCHOEPS, JULIUS H.: SCHOEPS, JULIUS H.: Ernst Benz (1907-1978). Zum 100. Geburtstag des Marburger Religionshistorikers, p. 83-84

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 85-95
Götterbilder – Gottesbilder – Weltbilder. Polytheismus und Monotheismus in der
Welt der Antike, Band I; Band II, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2006 (Lukas Bormann)
Tor Vegge: Paulus und das antike Schulwesen. Schule und Bildung des Paulus,
Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2006 (Friedrich W. Horn)
Gangolf Hübinger: Gelehrte, Politik und Öffentlichkeit. Eine Intellektuellengeschichte. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006 (Björn Hofmeister)
Anke Dörner: La vita spezzata. Leonardo Olschki: ein jüdischer Romanist zwischen
Integration und Emigration. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, 2005 (Thomas Gilbhard)
Asia Now. Architektur in Asien. München/Berlin/London/New York: Prestel 2006 (Hans Sprenger)

Abstracts:
JOACHIM H. KNOLL: Jahresringe der Religions- und Geistesgeschichte. In the near future three anniversaries are to be celebrated: Hans-Joachim Schoeps, German-jewish scholar and full professor of religious and intellectual history, would be in January 2009 100 years old. Jointly together with Ernst Benz, full professor of Theology at the University of Marburg, Hans-Joachim Schoeps launched the Journal of religious and intellectual history (ZRGG), which is now entering its 60th volume. And the Scientific Association for religious and Intellectual history (GGG), which was as well founded by Hans-Joachim Schoeps, is going to celebrate its 50th anniversary. The article depicts biographical data and scholarly highlights of Schoeps, and combines them with a view to the development of ZRGG and GGG.

JOHANN EV. HAFNER: Monstranz – Gott zeigen.
The Feast of Corpus Christi was only able to assert itself after it Came to be connected with a procession. In this visual rite a host in a monstrance is carried through the streets. The intention is to emphasize the substantial presence of Christ in the “accidental” form of bread. In studying such rites, a scholarly approach to religion does not limit itself to popular custom or sacramental theology, but also asks about the underlying functions of the feast of Corpus Christi. The following article interprets the Corpus Christi procession as a diffusion and expansion of the believer’s’ focused attention. This, in turn, was a reaction to the overly strong emphasis on external appearances of piety when the host was elevated. The host itself may be interpreted as the blind spot of religious observation because it functions as a visible sign of the transcendental that is not further interpreted, but is displayed in silence. It is neither negated nor affirmed, though its meaning is presumed and is operationally repeated.

INBAL BEN-ASHER GITLER: Reconstructing Religions.
This paper discusses the representation of Jewish religion and culture in the architecture of the YMCA Building in Jerusalem, a prominent edifice built by New York architect Arthur Loomis Harmon for the American YMCA. Within it, Jewish place and space were reconstructed as part of an architecture planned to promote Jewish, Christian and Moslem co-existence through an American secular cultural curriculum and a Christian vision of peace.

WALTER HOMOLKA: Jesus der Jude.
The article provides an overview of Jewish Life-of-Jesus research from Abraham Geiger to Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich. Julius Wellhausen’s assessment that Jesus was not Christian but Jewish encountered a Jewish community that was striving for civic equality in the course of the Enlightenment and that saw itself impaired by the idea of the „Christian state.“ The ensuing Jewish concern with the central figure of the New Testament was not of fundamental nature, but rather followed from an apologetic impulse: the wish to participate in general society without having to give up Jewish identity. Since then, many Jewish thinkers of the modern era have studied Jesus. The essay outlines the history of „bringing Jesus home“ to Judaism, which has been observable since the nineteenth century. Jesus returns as exemplary Jew, as hortatory prophet, as revolutionary and freedom fighter, as big brother and messianic Zionist. The foremost intention though, was that Jews wanted to remain Jews and nevertheless be part of Christian society. How fortunate, therefore, that Jesus was Jewish.

Heft 2



AUFSÄTZE:

HILLERBRAND, HANS J.: The Decline and Fall of the True Christian Church:
The English Deist View, p. 97-110

HILDESHEIMER, MEIR: Religious Education in Response to Changing Times. Congregation Adass-Isroel Religious School in Berlin, p. 111-130

AUWÄRTER, THOMAS: Stanisław Przybyszewski – „Der Geist des Bösen“? Zur künstlerischen Spiritualität eines Bohèmiens um 1900, p. 131-151

MEHRING, REINHARD: Reflektierte Trennung. Vom Scheitern der „deutschjüdischen Symbiose“ bei Carl Schmitt und Ludwig Feuchtwanger – nach ihrem Briefwechsel, p. 152-171

MISZELLE:
KNOLL, JOACHIM H.: Grollen aus Bielefeld. Hans-Ulrich Wehler inszeniert seine wissenschaftliche und politische Gelehrtenbiographie, p. 172-177

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 178-191
Ch. Auffahrt/H. G. Kippenberg/A. Michaels (Hg.): Wörterbuch der Religionen, Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner 2006 (Klaus E. Grözinger);
James A. Beckford/John Walliss (Hg.), Theorising Religion. Classical and Contemporary Debates, Aldershot/Burlington: Ashgate 2006 (Michael Stausberg);
Stefan Stiegler/Uwe Swarat (Hg.), Der Monotheismus als theologisches und politisches Problem, Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt 2006 (Lukas Bormann);
Max Küchler/Karl Matthias Schmidt (Hg.), Texte - Fakten - Artefakte. Beiträge zur Bedeutung der Archäologie für die neutestamentliche Forschung, NTOA 59, Freiburg: Academic Press/Göttingen: V&R 2006 (Friedrich W. Horn);
Michael Epkenhans/Andreas von Seggern, Leben im Kaiserreich. Deutschland um 1900, Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss 2007 (Joachim H. Knoll);
Michael Buddrus/Sigrid Fritzlar, Die Professoren der Universität Rostock im Dritten Reich. Ein biographisches Lexikon, München: K. G. Saur 2007 (Christoph Kopke);
Ruth Oelze, Funkensuche. Soma Morgensterns Midrasch "Die Blutsäule" und der jüdische theologische Diskurs über die Shoah, Tübingen: Niemeyer 2006 (Ulrike Schneider);
Charles Jacquier (Hg.), Lebenserfahrung und Geistesarbeit. Simone Weil und der Anarchismus, Nettersheim: Graswurzelverlag 2006 (Helen Thein)

Abstracts:
HILLERBRAND, HANS J.: The Decline and Fall of the True Christian Church: The English Deist View
Christian Deism broke radically with the past and had its starting point in the notion that Christianity, as it was known, was perverted and no longer represented in the true and apostolic faith. Many of the titles of most of the Deist’s books expressed this dismay over the state of the Christian religion, the need for re-interpretation of the nature of the true gospel and for reform. While most books reflected on the matter, the individual perspectives differed on the questions: Whom to blame for this fall? How to date it? What was the correct issue? The article argues that it was not the contention of the English Deists that some churches had erred in some points, but that all the churches had erred in all points: The entire system of the Christian religion was perverted. Their view of the history of Christianity was intimately connected with their view of the person and significance of Jesus.

HILDESHEIMER, MEIR: Religious Education in Response to Changing
Times. Congregation Adass-Isroel Religious School in Berlin
During the 19th century, various frameworks were established in Germany for the purpose of providing Jewish students with religious education. The article deals primarily with the orthodox Congregation Adass-Isroel Religious School. Established in 1869 in Berlin, the school had a major impact on the development of supplementary religious instruction throughout Germany and served as a model in this area. The school’s background, history, basic principles and method of instruction, as well as study subjects (Hebrew, Bible, Talmud, Religious instruction, History) are discussed and compared to corresponding religious schools. Research is based on the school’s
annual reports, archival material, scholarly literature, memoirs and newspapers.

AUWÄRTER, THOMAS: Stanislaw Przybyszewski – „Der Geist des Bösen“? Zur künstlerischen Spiritualität eines Bohèmiens um 1900
As the embodiment of a border-crosser between science, literature, and occultism, the writer Stanislaw Przybyszewski also represents the ambivalent consciousness of the avant-garde. Behind the facade of imperial Berlin, he opens up a world of wonder, demons and ecstasy. Without using a normative understanding of modernity, this article attempts to portray Przybyszewski as proof of the irreconcilable tensions between rationalism and irrationalism in the period around 1900. Central to this argumentation are his spiritual references, such as satanism and occultism.

MEHRING, REINHARD: Reflektierte Trennung. Vom Scheitern der „deutschjüdischen Symbiose“ bei Carl Schmitt und Ludwig Feuchtwanger – nach ihrem Briefwechsel
This essay points out the great importance of the recently published exchange of letters between Carl Schmitt and his publisher Ludwig Feuchtwanger. Using unknown letters, it also outlines Schmitt’s relationship with Jewish intellectuals before 1933, describes the dramatic development of the political-theological controversy, and honors Feuchtwanger as a postassimilationist Jewish intellectual and legal historian.

Heft 3



AUFSÄTZE:

BARTEL, BERTHOLD P.: Vom Antitsiganismus zum antiziganism. Zur Genese eines unbestimmten Begriffs, p. 193-212

BERNET, CLAUS: Das deutsche Quäkertum in der Frühen Neuzeit. Ein grundsätzlicher Beitrag zur Pietismusforschung, p. 213-234

STROBACH, BERNDT: Hebräischer Buchdruck zwischen Hofjuden-Mäzenatentum und christlicher Zensur. Wie die Harzstadt Blankenburg nicht zum jüdischen Publikationsort wurde, p. 235-252

LUND, ALLAN A.: Zur Verbrennung der sogenanten Chrestiani (Tac. Ann. 15,44), p. 253-261

MISZELLE:

KNOLL, JOACHIM H.: Migration in Europa, p. 262-265

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 266-285
Robert Spaemann: Das unsterbliche Gerücht, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 2007 (Martin Arndt);
Michael Studemund-Halevy: Portugal in Hamburg, Hamburg: Ellert & Richter 2007 (Joachim H. Knoll);
Das Jüdische Hamburg. Ein historisches Nachschlagewerk, Göttingen: Wallstein 2006 (Joachim H. Knoll);
Gerd Theißen: Erleben und Verhalten der ersten Christen. Eine Psychologie des Urchristentums, Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus 2007 (Friedrich W. Horn);
Das Bild der Erscheinung. Die Gregorsmesse im Mittelalter, hg. v. Andreas Gormanns/Thomas Lentes, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer 2007 (Hans Sprenger);
Painton Cowen: Gotische Pracht. Die Rosenfenster der großen Kathedralen, Stuttgart: Belser 2005 (Andreas Köstler);
Rüdiger Safranski: Romantik. Eine deutsche Affäre, München: Carl Hanser 2007 (Gerhard Altmann);
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher: Vorlesungen über die Kirchengeschichte. Hg. v. Simon Gerber (Kritische Gesamtausgabe, II. Abt.: Vorlesungen, Bd. 6), Berlin/New York: De Gruyter 2006 (Görge K. Hasselhoff);
Richard Faber: Politische Dämonologie. Über modernen Marcionismus, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann 2007 (Reinhard Mehring);
Gerhard Scheit (Hg.), Jean Améry Werke, Bd. 8: Ausgewählte Briefe 1945-1978, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 2007 (Ulrike Schneider);
Hans-Joachim Schoeps: Der vergessene Gott. Franz Kafka und die tragische Position des modernen Juden, Hg. u. eingel. v. Andreas Krause Landt, Berlin: Landt 2006 (K. E. Grözinger);
Micha Brumlik: Kritik des Zionismus, Hamburg: Europäische Verlagsanstalt 2007 (Julius H. Schoeps);
Edgar Wolfrum: Die geglückte Demokratie. Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland von ihren Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 2006 (Manfred Görtemaker);
Metzler Lexikon Literatur. Begriffe und Definitionen, 3. völlig neu bearb. Aufl., Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler 2007 (Gideon Botsch)

In der Redaktion eingegangene Bücher, p. 286-287

ABSTRACTS:

BARTEL, BERTHOLD P.: Vom Antitsiganismus zum antiziganism. Zur Genese eines unbestimmten Begriffs
The German term “Antiziganismus” could be translated as “antigypsyism”, but the semantic roots are, in fact, different. Coined in the 1980s, “Antiziganismus” might be misconceived as a sheer abstraction: a “close reading” of the term’s context could indeed partially justify the assumption that it in many ways reproduces certain impacts and implications of its better known equivalent – an actively employed anti-Semitism. However, the article’s main thesis is that “Antiziganismus” denotes a term in its own right. This status cannot be challenged even by the most recent development, which is an interest group’s attempt to internationalize the scope of the term by coining the derivative “antiziganism”.

BERNET, CLAUS: Das deutsche Quäkertum in der Frühen Neuzeit. Ein grundsätzlicher Beitrag zur Pietismusforschung
Quakerism is the first Anglo-American religion that has gained ground in Germany, especially in the north, in the second half of the 17th century. Contrary to older church historiography, this was not a marginal phenomenon. Rather, stable congregations developed, as did a Europe-wide network of missionary work and a differentiated culture of polemic writings. These points of encounter allowed the Quakers to establish contact with supporters of Böhme and radical pietists while at the same time enabling an Antiquakeriana campaign against them. At the center of this study lies the question for the Religious-historical positioning of Quakerism. The author argues that due to impulses of extra-ecclesiastical pietism, positions arose that transgressed Christianity’s frame of reference. Therefore the reference to the early modern understanding of esoterism has proven especially useful.

STROBACH, BERNDT: Hebräischer Buchdruck zwischen Hofjuden-Mäzenatentum und christlicher Zensur. Wie die Harzstadt Blankenburg nicht zum jüdischen Publikationsort wurde
In a petty German principality around 1700, an influential Court Jew wants a traditional Hebrew commentary published. The printer he commissions moves shop and starts printing, not aware of severe clerical censorship. With part of the job done he has to move to another location hoping for a more liberal policy there. Within the absolutist system the episode highlights the opportunities and the limits of Court Jew’s influence, as well as the prince’s wavering between the prospect of profiting from a new trade and the fear of risking covert un-Christian propaganda.

LUND, ALLAN A.: Zur Verbrennung der sogenanten Chrestiani (Tac. Ann. 15,44)
The following article shows what Tacitus Ann. 15,44 thought of the role of the Chrestiani at the burning of the Roman capital A.D. 64 and why they themselves as punishment of their „crime“ were crucified and burned. In order to demonstrate this the textus receptus is first analysed linguistically and its content interpreted in its historical and sociological context. It is ethnohistorically established as a fact that Tacitus counted the Chrestiani as a minority of the Iudaei. Linguistically it is proved that the words aut flammandi atque ubi are corrupt and have to be emended ad flammas dati, ut, cum why some of the Chrestiani as part of their punishment were given to the flames, i.e. Latine: ad flammas dati (sunt).

Heft 4



INHALTSVERZEICHNIS

AUFSÄTZE:

TISCHER, UTE: Petrus Martyr d’Anghiera über die Freiheit der Indios (Epist. 806 und Dec. 7,4), p. 289-309

SURALL, FRANK: Vom Sieg der Vernunft über das Vorurteil. Gotthold Ephraim Lessings Frühwerk „Die Juden“, p. 310-329

SCHWINGE, GERHARD: Internationaler Wissenschaftsaustausch um 1830. Ein Beispiel: der Heidelberger Theologe und Pädagoge F. H. C. Schwarz und die Niederlande, p. 330-343

GRÜNHAGEN, CÉLINE: Tod und Bestattung im Kontext religiöser Pluralität. Probleme und Möglichkeiten bei der Umsetzung buddhistischer Bestattungen in Deutschland, p. 344-364

MISZELLEN:

HEGASY, SONJA: Lev Nussimbaum – Essad Bey – Kurban Said. Ein Schriftsteller zwischen Orient und Okzident, p. 365-368

SCHNEIDER, ULRIKE: Jean Améry 1912-1978. Was bleibt dreißig Jahre nach seinem Tod?, p. 369-375

BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, p. 376-381

Zu Heinrich Heines Spätwerk „Lutezia“. Kunstcharakter und europäischer Kontext. Hg. v. Arnold Postiak und Julia Rintz, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 2007 (Brigitte Krüger)

Albrecht Zunker, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP). Entwicklungsgeschichte
einer Institution politikbezogener Forschung, Berlin: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag
2007 (Joachim H. Knoll)

Stephan Schlak: Wilhelm Hennis, Szenen einer Ideengeschichte der Bundesrepublik.
München: C. H. Beck 2008 (Joachim H. Knoll)

ABSTRACTS

TISCHER, UTE: Petrus Martyr d’Anghiera über die Freiheit der Indios (Epist. 806 und Dec. 7,4), p. 289-309
Petrus Martyr d’Anghiera dealt twice with the ethical discussions concerning the Spanish colonization in America around 1524. A straight reading shows how this sensitive topic was presented with caution and literary skill, thereby mitigating the charge of opportunism that several authors have made.

SURALL, FRANK: Vom Sieg der Vernunft über das Vorurteil. Gotthold Ephraim Lessings Frühwerk „Die Juden“, p. 310-329
C. F. Gellert’s 1748 novel „Leben der schwedischen Gräfin von G***“ portrays the moral actions of Jews as a result of good Christian conduct. In reaction,G. E. Lessing disputes this depiction in his one-act-play „Die Juden“ from 1749. The recognition that a Jew could fulfill the ideals of the Enlightenment helped overcome the prejudices of Christian stage characters and of the audience,but it failed in the social circumstances of the time. Christian reception (J. D. Michaelis) understood a „noble Jew“ to be a violation of the poetic principle of probability - and even for Lessing such a figure was the exception. Moses Mendelssohn, however, believed that Judaism was especially well-suited for fostering the development of certain virtues. In light of far-reaching interreligious concepts on the one hand and religiously motivated conflicts on the other,Lessing’s early works reveal today the persistent value of self-critical examination concerning hidden prejudices towards religious and cultural minorities.

SCHWINGE, GERHARD: Internationaler Wissenschaftsaustausch um 1830. Ein Beispiel: der Heidelberger Theologe und Pädagoge F. H. C. Schwarz und die Niederlande, p. 330-343
Using the example of the contacts between the Netherlands and the university theologian and educationalist from Heidelberg, F. H. C. Schwarz (1766-1837), this article demonstrates that intensive personal academic exchange existed already in the early 19th century: It included the reading of scientific literature in foreign languages, book reviews in special periodicals, translation projects, visits across the borders membership in academic societies, scholarships for foreign students and sometimes even offers of chairmanships to scientists of other nations. Even though international research projects were not known at the time, academic contacts did exist and were mostly achieved through correspondence – despite the limitations – as well as travel.

GRÜNHAGEN, CÉLINE: Tod und Bestattung im Kontext religiöser Pluralität. Probleme und Möglichkeiten bei der Umsetzung buddhistischer Bestattungen in Deutschland, p. 344-364
Although Germany’s population is largely Christian, there are many German nationals as well as various immigrants who belong to non-Christian religious communities.When different religions and cultures with their particular rites and precepts meet, they can come into conflict with one another, hindering a peaceful coexistence. Cultural and religious discrepancies occur in various situations of everyday life, especially when it comes to the issue of funerals conducted in unfamiliar conditions. The rites and customs that relate to death and dying are usually basic elements of a religious tradition. They mark the end of a lifetime and often have a big impact on afterlife or rebirth respectively. Looking at the example of Buddhists in Germany, the article points to the difficulties and limitations that arise from non-Christian funerals in the Federal Republic. It also demonstrates the consequences of these conflicts for citizens of a different faith in German society and offers possible solutions for this problem.